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This paper highlights the role that reinforcement learning can play in the optimization of treatment policies for chronic illnesses. Before applying any off-the-shelf reinforcement learning methods in this setting, we must first tackle a number of challenges. We outline some of these challenges and present methods for overcoming them. First, we describe a(More)
Spectral methods cluster data represented as pairwise similarities between data points. The similarities are considered as given, but in any practical application, they have to be constructed by a domain expert. In this paper we address the problem of automatically learning the similarities as a function of observed features, in order to optimize spectral(More)
OBJECTIVE The evidence for the association between obesity and the risk of type 2 diabetes has been derived mainly from the analysis of the degree of obesity. The role of the duration of obesity as an independent risk has not been fully explored. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between the duration of obesity and the(More)
An accurate means of identifying patients at high risk for chronic disabling pain could lead to more cost-effective care, with more intensive interventions targeted to those likely to benefit most. The Chronic Pain Risk Score is a tool developed to predict risk for chronic pain. The aim of this study was to examine whether its predictive ability could be(More)
Treatment of schizophrenia is notoriously difficult and typically requires personalized adaption of treatment due to lack of efficacy of treatment, poor adherence, or intolerable side effects. The Clinical Antipsychotic Trials in Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) Schizophrenia Study is a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial comparing the typical(More)
In spectral clustering and spectral image segmentation, the data is partioned starting from a given matrix of pairwise similarities S. the matrix S is constructed by hand, or learned on a separate training set. In this paper we show how to achieve spectral clustering in unsupervised mode. Our algorithm starts with a set of observed pairwise features, which(More)
UNLABELLED In a primary care population of 367 older adults (aged ⩾60 years) with osteoarthritis (OA) pain and insomnia, we examined the relationship between short-term improvement in sleep and long-term sleep, pain, and fatigue outcomes through secondary analyses of randomized controlled trial data. Study participants, regardless of experimental treatment(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the association between thoughts of death or self-harm reported on item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) depression module and the risk of suicide attempt or suicide death over the following 2 years. METHOD In 4 health care systems participating in the Mental Health Research Network, electronic records identified 509,945(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate overprescribing of antidepressant medication for minimal or mild depression. METHOD Electronic records data from 4 large health care systems identified outpatients aged 18 years or older starting a new episode of antidepressant treatment in 2011 with an ICD-9 diagnosis of depressive disorder (296.2, 296.3, 311, or 300.4). Patient(More)