Susan M Schulz

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Novel therapeutics to overcome the toxic effects of organophosphorus (OP) chemical agents are needed due to the documented use of OPs in warfare (e.g. 1980-1988 Iran/Iraq war) and terrorism (e.g. 1995 Tokyo subway attacks). Standard OP exposure therapy in the United States consists of atropine sulfate (to block muscarinic receptors), the(More)
These studies investigated the effectiveness of combination treatment with a benzodiazepine and an anticholinergic drug against soman-induced seizures. The anticholinergic drugs considered were biperiden, scopolamine, trihexaphenidyl, and procyclidine; the benzodiazepines were diazepam and midazolam. Male guinea pigs were implanted surgically with cortical(More)
The administration of purified human plasma-derived butyrylcholinesterase (HuBuChE) as a pretreatment has been demonstrated to enhance survival and protect against decreased cognitive function after exposure to organophosphorus poisons (OPs). Based on efficacy data obtained with guinea pigs and non-human primates and the lack of behavioral side effects,(More)
The hairless guinea pig (HGP) is used by our laboratory to model the human cutaneous response to sulfur mustard (HD), bis(2-chloroethylsulfide), exposure. We determined the HD content in the skin of HGP after a 7-min exposure to vapors saturated with a mixture of HD and 14C-HD. Concentration/time (CT) values in the range of 2 micrograms/cm2/min were(More)
Soman (GD) and VX are chemical warfare agents that can be absorbed through the skin. We determined the median lethal dose (MLD) for the cutaneous application of GD and VX in anesthetized haired guinea pigs and then tested the ability of a currently fielded decontamination kit, the M291 Skin Decontamination Kit (SDK), and decontaminating foam made by SANDIA(More)
VR (O-isobutyl-S-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]methyl phosphonothioate) is a structural isomer of VX and is thought to be the principal V-agent found in Russian chemical weapons. We evaluated the toxicity (24 hr LD50) of VR and determined the effectiveness of oxime and atropine (ATR) treatment and pyridostigmine (PB) pretreatment in guinea pigs. Lethality(More)
The CD1-haired mouse and the SKH-hairless mouse are two animal models that have been used to evaluate sulfur mustard (HD) exposure and protection in our laboratory. In a recent study we observed that a substance P inhibitor protected the haired mouse ear against an HD solution, but the same drug was not successful in protecting the hairless mouse against HD(More)
Scopolamine (SCP) is an anticholinergic drug used clinically for decades to treat motion sickness, as a surgical preanesthetic, and as a smooth muscle antispasmodic. It has also been used experimentally as a pretreatment and/or treatment adjunct to mitigate the toxic sequelae of organophosphorus (OP) nerve agent intoxication. SCP has been reported to(More)
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