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Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are widely studied by HSC transplantation into immune- and blood-cell-depleted recipients. Single HSCs can rebuild the system after transplantation. Chromosomal marking, viral integration and barcoding of transplanted HSCs suggest that very low numbers of HSCs perpetuate a continuous stream of differentiating cells. However,(More)
The cellular differentiation pathway originating from the bone marrow leading to early T lymphocytes remains poorly understood. The view that T cells branch off from a lymphoid-restricted pathway has recently been challenged by a model proposing a common progenitor for T cell and myeloid lineages. We generated interleukin-7 receptor alpha (Il7r) Cre(More)
Thymus function is thought to depend on a steady supply of T cell progenitors from the bone marrow. The notion that the thymus lacks progenitors with self-renewal capacity is based on thymus transplantation experiments in which host-derived thymocytes replaced thymus-resident cells within 4 wk. Thymus grafting into T cell-deficient mice resulted in a wave(More)
The long-standing model for hematopoiesis, which features a dichotomy into separate lymphoid and myeloid branches, predicts that progenitor T cells arise from a lymphocyte-restricted pathway. However, experiments that have detected myeloid potential in progenitor T cells have been reported as evidence to question this model. Mapping physiological(More)
Foxp3⁺ regulatory T (Treg) cells are a crucial immunosuppressive population of CD4⁺ T cells, yet the homeostatic processes and survival programs that maintain the Treg cell pool are poorly understood. Here we report that peripheral Treg cells markedly alter their proliferative and apoptotic rates to rapidly restore numerical deficit through an interleukin(More)
Mast cells are protective against snake venom sarafotoxins that belong to the endothelin (ET) peptide family. The molecular mechanism underlying this recently recognized innate defense pathway is unknown, but secretory granule proteases have been invoked. To specifically disrupt a single protease function without affecting expression of other proteases, we(More)
Cutaneous mast cells have important pathogenic roles in skin inflammation, but the signals regulating mast-cell numbers in healthy and inflamed skin are not fully understood. Mast-cell development depends on the receptor tyrosine kinase Kit as shown by a greater than 95% reduction of mast-cell numbers in hypomorphic (Kit(W/Wv)) mutant mice that are widely(More)
The microRNA-29 (miR-29) family is among the most abundantly expressed microRNA in the pancreas and liver. Here, we investigated the function of miR-29 in glucose regulation using miR-29a/b-1 (miR-29a)-deficient mice and newly generated miR-29b-2/c (miR-29c)-deficient mice. We observed multiple independent functions of the miR-29 family, which can be(More)
A second-degree epidermal scald burn in mice elicits an inflammatory response mediated by natural IgM directed to nonmuscle myosin with complement activation that results in ulceration and scarring. We find that such burn injury is associated with early mast cell (MC) degranulation and is absent in WBB6F1-Kit(W)/Kit(Wv) mice, which lack MCs in a context of(More)
Regulatory T cells (T reg cells) are essential for the prevention of autoimmunity throughout life. T reg cell development occurs intrathymically but a subset of T reg cells can also differentiate from naive T cells in the periphery. In vitro, Smad signaling facilitates conversion of naive T cells into T reg cells but results in unstable Foxp3 expression.(More)