Susan M. Kingsman

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) causes adult-onset, progressive motor neuron degeneration in the brain and spinal cord, resulting in paralysis and death three to five years after onset in most patients. ALS is still incurable, in part because its complex aetiology remains insufficiently understood. Recent reports have indicated that reduced levels of(More)
We have constructed a series of MLV-based retroviral vectors and packaging components expressed from the CMV promoter and carried on plasmids containing SV40 origins of replication. These two features greatly enhanced retroviral gene expression when introduced into cell lines carrying the SV40 large T antigen. The two packaging components, gag-pol and env,(More)
We have constructed a high-efficiency expression vector to direct the synthesis of heterologous polypeptides in yeast. The vector is termed a sandwich expression vector as the heterologous gene is inserted between the 5' and 3' control regions of the efficiently expressed yeast PGK gene. We have used this vector to direct the expression of three derivatives(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease resulting in the selective death of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Some familial cases of ALS are caused by dominant mutations in the gene encoding superoxide dismutase (SOD1). The emergence of interfering RNA (RNAi) for specific gene silencing could be therapeutically(More)
In this report it is demonstrated for the first time that rabies-G envelope of the rabies virus is sufficient to confer retrograde axonal transport to a heterologous virus/vector. After delivery of rabies-G pseudotyped equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) based vectors encoding a marker gene to the rat striatum, neurons in regions distal from but(More)
A high therapeutic index is as important for gene-based therapies as it is for chemotherapy or radiotherapy. One approach has been transcriptional targeting through the use of tissue-specific regulatory elements. A more versatile approach would be to use a regulatory element that is controlled via a parameter common to a broad range of diseases. Ischemia is(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genome is AU rich, and this imparts a codon bias that is quite different from the one used by human genes. The codon usage is particularly marked for the gag, pol, and env genes. Interestingly, the expression of these genes is dependent on the presence of the Rev/Rev-responsive element (RRE) regulatory system, even in(More)
Retinoic acid, acting through the nuclear retinoic acid receptor beta2 (RARbeta2), stimulates neurite outgrowth from peripheral nervous system tissue that has the capacity to regenerate neurites, namely, embryonic and adult dorsal root ganglia. Similarly, in central nervous system tissue that can regenerate, namely, embryonic mouse spinal cord, retinoic(More)
The embryonic CNS readily undergoes regeneration, unlike the adult CNS, which has limited axonal repair after injury. Here we tested the hypothesis that retinoic acid receptor beta2 (RARbeta2), critical in development for neuronal growth, may enable adult neurons to grow in an inhibitory environment. Overexpression of RARbeta2 in adult rat dorsal root(More)
Lentiviral vectors based on equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) stably integrate into dividing and nondividing cells such as neurons, conferring long-term expression of their transgene. The integration profile of an EIAV vector was analyzed in dividing HEK293T cells, alongside an HIV-1 vector as a control, and compared to a random dataset generated in(More)