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Several observations suggest that tumour necrosis factor (TNF) plays a role in demyelination, although direct evidence for this is lacking. We have examined ultrastructurally rat sciatic nerves injected with TNF-alpha or TNF-beta: the effects of the two cytokines were found to be qualitatively similar. One day after injection nerves were oedematous and(More)
We have investigated the organization, on the plasma membrane and in detergent-insoluble membrane vesicles, of two neuronal glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored (GPI) proteins: Thy-1, a negative regulator of transmembrane signalling; and prion protein, whose rapid endocytosis and Cu(2+) binding suggest that it functions in metal ion uptake. Prion protein(More)
Recently it has been demonstrated that the growth-associated protein GAP-43 is not confined to neurons but is also expressed by certain central nervous system glial cells in tissue culture and in vivo. This study has extended these observations to the major class of glial cells in the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells. Using immunohistochemical(More)
The changing electrical and morphological properties of demyelinating and remyelinating nerve fibres have been studied in rat ventral roots after intrathecal injection of lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC). The spatial distribution of electrical excitability within the lesion has been studied in undissected single fibres using high-resolution longitudinal(More)
The level of expression of normal cellular prion protein, PrP(c) (cellular prion protein), controls both the rate and the route of neuroinvasive infection, from peripheral entry portal to the CNS. Paradoxically, an overview of the distribution of PrP(c) within tissues outside the CNS is lacking. We have used novel antibodies that recognise cellular prion(More)
BACKGROUND Cancer end-of-life care (EoLC) policies assume people want to die at home. We aimed to examine variations in preferences for place of death cross-nationally. METHODS A telephone survey of a random sample of individuals aged ≥16 in England, Flanders, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. We determined where people would prefer to(More)
A painful neuropathy is frequently observed in people living with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The HIV coat protein, glycoprotein 120 (gp120), implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders associated with HIV, is capable of initiating neurotoxic cascades via an interaction with the CXCR4 and/or CCR5 chemokine receptors, which may(More)
SUMMARY The action of phospholipase A and lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC) on mature, myelinated peripheral nerve fibres has been studied in vivo and electron microscopically, following sub-perineurial injection of these substances. Within 30 min, demyelination was observed in vivo along cylindrico-conical segments, spreading from Schmidt-Lanterman incisures(More)
A coculture method is described for ensheathing glial cells from adult rat olfactory nerve, serving as a substrate for the regrowth of neurites from adult rat retinal ganglion cells. Immunocytochemically identified phenotypes present in primary cultures of olfactory nerve cells are described, and their ability to promote neurite outgrowth is compared with(More)