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Several observations suggest that tumour necrosis factor (TNF) plays a role in demyelination, although direct evidence for this is lacking. We have examined ultrastructurally rat sciatic nerves injected with TNF-alpha or TNF-beta: the effects of the two cytokines were found to be qualitatively similar. One day after injection nerves were oedematous and(More)
Recently it has been demonstrated that the growth-associated protein GAP-43 is not confined to neurons but is also expressed by certain central nervous system glial cells in tissue culture and in vivo. This study has extended these observations to the major class of glial cells in the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells. Using immunohistochemical(More)
We have investigated the organization, on the plasma membrane and in detergent-insoluble membrane vesicles, of two neuronal glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored (GPI) proteins: Thy-1, a negative regulator of transmembrane signalling; and prion protein, whose rapid endocytosis and Cu(2+) binding suggest that it functions in metal ion uptake. Prion protein(More)
The level of expression of normal cellular prion protein, PrP(c) (cellular prion protein), controls both the rate and the route of neuroinvasive infection, from peripheral entry portal to the CNS. Paradoxically, an overview of the distribution of PrP(c) within tissues outside the CNS is lacking. We have used novel antibodies that recognise cellular prion(More)
The changing electrical and morphological properties of demyelinating and remyelinating nerve fibres have been studied in rat ventral roots after intrathecal injection of lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC). The spatial distribution of electrical excitability within the lesion has been studied in undissected single fibres using high-resolution longitudinal(More)
Previous studies of peripherally injected mouse scrapie suggested that invasion of the CNS occurs initially in mid-thoracic cord by neural spread of infection from spleen and other visceral sites of extraneural replication. We now show that infection of the left sciatic nerve leads to direct spread of infection to brain (at a rate of approximately 1.0-2.0(More)
A coculture method is described for ensheathing glial cells from adult rat olfactory nerve, serving as a substrate for the regrowth of neurites from adult rat retinal ganglion cells. Immunocytochemically identified phenotypes present in primary cultures of olfactory nerve cells are described, and their ability to promote neurite outgrowth is compared with(More)
BACKGROUND Cancer end-of-life care (EoLC) policies assume people want to die at home. We aimed to examine variations in preferences for place of death cross-nationally. METHODS A telephone survey of a random sample of individuals aged ≥16 in England, Flanders, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. We determined where people would prefer to(More)
Recent studies on human embryonic and fetal lungs show that the pulmonary arteries form by vasculogenesis. Little is known of the early development of the pulmonary veins. Using immunohistochemical techniques and serial reconstruction, we studied 18 fetal and neonatal lungs. Sections were stained with antibodies specific for endothelium (CD31, von(More)
Adaptation of the pulmonary arterial intima was studied in injected lung specimens of 34 Large White pigs. Each type of pre- and intra-acinar artery was studied separately using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Determination of the endothelial surface/volume ratio and volume densities of (1) endothelium and subendothelium, (2) endothelial(More)