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We have investigated the organization, on the plasma membrane and in detergent-insoluble membrane vesicles, of two neuronal glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored (GPI) proteins: Thy-1, a negative regulator of transmembrane signalling; and prion protein, whose rapid endocytosis and Cu(2+) binding suggest that it functions in metal ion uptake. Prion protein(More)
Recently it has been demonstrated that the growth-associated protein GAP-43 is not confined to neurons but is also expressed by certain central nervous system glial cells in tissue culture and in vivo. This study has extended these observations to the major class of glial cells in the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells. Using immunohistochemical(More)
The changing electrical and morphological properties of demyelinating and remyelinating nerve fibres have been studied in rat ventral roots after intrathecal injection of lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC). The spatial distribution of electrical excitability within the lesion has been studied in undissected single fibres using high-resolution longitudinal(More)
Several observations suggest that tumour necrosis factor (TNF) plays a role in demyelination, although direct evidence for this is lacking. We have examined ultrastructurally rat sciatic nerves injected with TNF-alpha or TNF-beta: the effects of the two cytokines were found to be qualitatively similar. One day after injection nerves were oedematous and(More)
A painful neuropathy is frequently observed in people living with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The HIV coat protein, glycoprotein 120 (gp120), implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders associated with HIV, is capable of initiating neurotoxic cascades via an interaction with the CXCR4 and/or CCR5 chemokine receptors, which may(More)
An experimental chronic relapsing demyelinating neuropathy was produced by immunizing adult Lewis rats with bovine myelin in low (2.5 mg) and high (5 mg) doses, with and without Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the adjuvant. Each regime produced a similar disease course: acute severe hind limb weakness was followed by apparent recovery and then reappearance of(More)
A coculture method is described for ensheathing glial cells from adult rat olfactory nerve, serving as a substrate for the regrowth of neurites from adult rat retinal ganglion cells. Immunocytochemically identified phenotypes present in primary cultures of olfactory nerve cells are described, and their ability to promote neurite outgrowth is compared with(More)
Many studies have shown a role of retinoid signalling in neurite outgrowth in vitro, and that the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) beta2 is critical for this process. We show here that RARbeta2 is expressed predominantly in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neuronal subtypes that express neurofilament (NF) 200 and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and that these(More)
Axonal degeneration can be an important cause of permanent disability in neurological disorders in which inflammation is prominent, including multiple sclerosis and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The mechanisms responsible for the degeneration remain unclear, but it is likely that axons succumb to factors produced at the site of inflammation, such as nitric oxide(More)
Axonal degeneration is a major cause of permanent deficit in inflammatory neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Axons undergo degeneration specifically at the site of the inflammatory lesions, suggesting that locally produced inflammatory factors mediate the phenomenon. One such factor is nitric oxide (NO), which we have previously reported can(More)