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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is present in murine and human skin and causes itch (pruritus) when injected in humans. This behavioural study examined the scratch reflex evoked by ET-1 in mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH An automated detector was used to determine whether ET-1 causes reflex scratching, the behavioural correlate of itching, in(More)
To investigate the role of the vagus nerve in acute inflammatory and cardiorespiratory responses to diesel particulate (DP) in the rat airway, we measured changes in respiration, blood pressure and neutrophils in lungs of urethane anesthetized Wistar rats 6-h post-instillation of DP (500 microg) and studied the effect of mid-cervical vagotomy or atropine (1(More)
Concentration-effect curves were obtained with carbachol tested on isolated preparations of guinea-pig ileum taken from adjacent sites in the same animal, one recorded isotonically, the other isometrically: similar experiments were made with histamine as agonist and with carbachol on rat uterus (in oestrus). The position and steepness of the curves was(More)
1. We tested the hypothesis that activation of P2X receptors associated with vagal afferent nerves can evoke a Bezold-Jarisch (B-J) depressor reflex in anaesthetized rats. 2. Injection of alphabeta-methylene ATP (alphabeta-MeATP; 0.6-600 nmol i.v.) evoked a dose-dependent B-J reflex comprising bradycardia, hypotension and apnoea in rats anaesthetized with(More)
Chronic joint pain affects physical well being and can lead to severe psychological and social problems, therefore successful long-term management is highly sought-after. No current behavioural measures of pain used in pre-clinical models mimic the clinical dolorimeter, which provides an objective measure of joint hypersensitivity. In this study we aim to(More)
BACKGROUND Reducing the excessive accumulation of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a key objective of most AD therapies. Several studies suggest that pharmacological inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) or its by-product angiotensin II may delay onset or progression of dementia and it has been suggested that this occurs via(More)
Neuropeptides synthesized in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) have been implicated in neurogenic inflammation and nociception in experimental and clinical inflammatory arthritis. We examined the very early changes in response to adjuvant injection in a rat model of unilateral tibio-tarsal joint inflammation and subsequent monoarthritis. Within 30 min of adjuvant(More)
The results of vasorespiratory studies in rats anaesthetised with pentobarbital show that (+/-) cannabidiol, a cannabinoid that lacks psychotropic actions and is inactive at cannabinoid (CB) receptors, does not affect respiration or blood pressure when injected (1-2000 microg; 3.2-6360 nmol i.a.). Cannabidiol in doses up to 2 mg (6360 nmol) i.a. or i.v. did(More)
The effects of ET-1 and ET-3 on ventilation and carotid chemosensory discharge have been studied in rats anaesthetised with pentotarbitone. Autoradiographic studies were also performed in vitro to investigate the binding of [125I]ET-1 to rat carotid body, nodose ganglion and brain stem. ET-1 caused a dose-related hyperventilation that was abolished by(More)
We have designed an economical non-invasive movement detector for small animal studies and used it for monitoring and quantifying itch in mice. The system is based on a sensitive force transducer positioned below a recording platform holding a lightweight polystyrene recording box in which an animal is placed. A programmed micro-controller is used to(More)