Susan M. Bertram

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 A fundamental requirement of task regulation in social groups is that it must allow colony flexibility. We tested assumptions of three task regulation models for how honeybee colonies respond to graded changes in need for a specific task, pollen foraging. We gradually changed colony pollen stores and measured behavioral and genotypic changes in the(More)
Empirical evidence suggests that division of labor in insect societies is positively related to group size both within and across taxa. Response threshold models (RTM) have been commonly used to analyze patterns of division of labor. However, these models have been explored empirically and theoretically for only a limited number of tasks, and few studies(More)
Successful social groups must respond dynamically to environmental changes. However, a flexible group response requires the coordination of many individuals. Here we offer a static analytical model that integrates variation in environment-based cues for performance of a task with genetically and environmentally based variation in individual responses, and(More)
Heterotrophic organisms must obtain essential elements in sufficient quantities from their food. Because plants naturally exhibit extensive variation in their elemental content, it is important to quantify the within-species stoichiometric variation of consumers. If extensive stoichiometric variation exists, it may help explain consumer variation in(More)
Phosphorus has been identified as an important determinant of nutrition-related biological variation. The macronutrients protein (P) and carbohydrates (C), both alone and interactively, are known to affect animal performance. No study, however, has investigated the importance of phosphorus relative to dietary protein or carbohydrates, or the interactive(More)
Division of labor is one of the primary adaptations of sociality and the focus of much theoretical work on self-organization. This work has been hampered by the lack of a quantitative measure of division of labor that can be applied across systems. We divide Shannon's mutual entropy by marginal entropy to quantify division of labor, rendering it robust over(More)
How do we quantify division of labor? We review several fields (sociology, landscape ecology, statistics, information theory, and biogeography) that have been cognizant of these questions and been somewhat successful at answering them. We review fourteen indices for quantifying division of labor, sensu lato, which can be categorized into four families:(More)
INTRODUCTION Human factors have been identified as root causes of human error in medicine. The "Anesthetists' Non-Technical Skills (ANTS) system" evaluates the effect of simulation training and debriefing on nontechnical skills (NTS). Studies suggest that residents' NTS may improve after simulation training but the effect on NTS of practicing(More)
Recently, there has been increasing interest in behavioral syndrome research across a range of taxa. Behavioral syndromes are suites of correlated behaviors that are expressed either within a given behavioral context (e.g., mating) or between different contexts (e.g., foraging and mating). Syndrome research holds profound implications for animal behavior as(More)
The dramatic competitive advantage of the African honey bee over European bees in the neotropics comes in large part from their faster rates of colony growth and reproduction. In honey bees, brood production, and thus colony growth, are controlled by the workers. Thus, we tested for genetic differences between African and European workers in their(More)