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Division of labor is one of the primary adaptations of sociality and the focus of much theoretical work on self-organization. This work has been hampered by the lack of a quantitative measure of division of labor that can be applied across systems. We divide Shannon's mutual entropy by marginal entropy to quantify division of labor, rendering it robust over(More)
Heterotrophic organisms must obtain essential elements in sufficient quantities from their food. Because plants naturally exhibit extensive variation in their elemental content, it is important to quantify the within-species stoichiometric variation of consumers. If extensive stoichiometric variation exists, it may help explain consumer variation in(More)
Phosphorus has been identified as an important determinant of nutrition-related biological variation. The macronutrients protein (P) and carbohydrates (C), both alone and interactively, are known to affect animal performance. No study, however, has investigated the importance of phosphorus relative to dietary protein or carbohydrates, or the interactive(More)
The phenotypic variance-covariance matrix (P) describes the multivariate distribution of a population in phenotypic space, providing direct insight into the appropriateness of measured traits within the context of multicollinearity (i.e., do they describe any significant variance that is independent of other traits), and whether trait covariances restrict(More)
Gryllus texensis males produce acoustic mating signals and display extensive heritable variation in when and how much time they spend signaling throughout the night. The goal of this research is to elucidate the potential mechanism responsible for maintaining this heritable variation. Mating signals attract female crickets. In low-density spring populations(More)
Successful social groups must respond dynamically to environmental changes. However, a flexible group response requires the coordination of many individuals. Here we offer a static analytical model that integrates variation in environment-based cues for performance of a task with genetically and environmentally based variation in individual responses, and(More)
Theoretically, sexual signals should provide honest information about mating benefits and many sexually reproducing species use honest signals when signalling to potential mates. Male crickets produce two types of acoustic mating signals: a long-distance mate attraction call and a short-range courtship call. We tested whether wild-caught fall field cricket(More)
INTRODUCTION Human factors have been identified as root causes of human error in medicine. The "Anesthetists' Non-Technical Skills (ANTS) system" evaluates the effect of simulation training and debriefing on nontechnical skills (NTS). Studies suggest that residents' NTS may improve after simulation training but the effect on NTS of practicing(More)
Calling male field crickets (Gryllus spp.) are acoustically located and subsequently parasitized by the parasitoid fly, Ormia ochracea (Diptera: Tachinidae). Parasitism by O. ochracea results in cricket death. The reproductive compensation hypothesis posits that when a host’s residual reproductive value decreases, it would be adaptive for that host to shift(More)
Phosphorus is extremely limited in the environment, often being 10-20 times lower in plants than what invertebrate herbivores require. This mismatch between resource availability and resource need can profoundly influence herbivore life history traits and fitness. This study investigated how dietary phosphorus availability influenced invertebrate growth,(More)