We have recently described molecular changes in T cells from tumor-bearing patients that are associated with depressed immune function. The present work investigates changes in T-cell signal transduction proteins including the T-cell receptor-zeta (TCR-zeta) chain and receptor-associated tyrosine kinases in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma. A… (More)
Background: The interferon-γ (IFN-γ) ELISPOT assay is one of the most useful techniques for immunological monitoring of cancer vaccine trials and has gained increased application as a measure of specific T cell activation. However, it does not assess cell-mediated cytotoxicity directly as IFN-γ secretion is not limited to only cytolytic cells. Granzyme B… (More)
Background: This study assessed the Granzyme B (GrB) ELISPOT as a viable alternative to the 51 Cr-release assay for measuring cytotoxic activity of innate immune effector cells. We strategically selected the GrB ELISPOT assay because GrB is a hallmark effector molecule of cell-mediated destruction of target cells.
BACKGROUND: The desired outcome of cancer vaccination is to induce a potent T cell response which can specifically recognize and eliminate autologous tumor cells in vivo. Accordingly, immunological assays that demonstrate recognition of native tumor cells (tumor-specific) may be more clinically relevant than assays that demonstrate recognition of tumor… (More)
The profiling and monitoring of immune responses are key elements in the evaluation of the efficacy and development of new biotherapies, and a number of assays have been introduced for analyzing various immune parameters before, during, and after immunotherapy. The choice of immune assays for a given clinical trial depends on the known or suggested… (More)