Susan L Samson

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Glis3 is a member of the Krüppel-like family of transcription factors and is highly expressed in islet beta cells. Mutations in GLIS3 cause the syndrome of neonatal diabetes and congenital hypothyroidism (NDH). Our aim was to examine the role of Glis3 in beta cells, specifically with regard to regulation of insulin gene transcription. We demonstrate that(More)
Systemic fibroblast growth factor (FGF)21 levels and hepatic FGF21 production are increased in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients, suggesting FGF21 resistance. We examined the effects of exenatide on FGF21 in patients with type 2 diabetes and in a diet-induced mouse model of obesity (DIO). Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (n = 24) on diet and/or(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Ghrelin is a multifaceted gut hormone that activates its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin's hallmark functions are its stimulatory effects on growth hormone release, food intake and fat deposition. Ghrelin is famously known as the 'hunger hormone'. However, ample recent literature indicates that the functions(More)
Exendin 4 (Ex4) is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP- 1R) agonist which is available as a short-acting injectable treatment for type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to characterize the long-term effects of elevated steady-state levels of Ex4 provided by in vivo gene therapy. We constructed a helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vector for long-term expression(More)
We examined the effects of combined pioglitazone (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonist) and exenatide (GLP-1 receptor agonist) therapy on hepatic fat content and plasma adiponectin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Twenty-one T2DM patients (age = 52 ± 3 years, BMI = 32.0 ± 1.5, hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) = 8.2 ± 0.4%)(More)
Metabolic syndrome is not a disease per se, but is a term that highlights traits that may have an increased risk of disease, approximately 2-fold for cardiovascular disease and 5-fold or more for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity and insulin resistance are believed to be at the core of most cases of metabolic syndrome, although further research is required(More)
BACKGROUND Cushing's Syndrome (CS) which is caused by isolated corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) production, rather than adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) production, is extremely rare. METHODS We describe the clinical presentation, course, laboratory values and pathologic findings of a patient with isolated ectopic CRH causing CS. We review the literature(More)
A previously healthy 36-year-old woman presented with visual hallucinations and acute psychosis manifested predominantly as hypersexuality. Laboratory testing demonstrated elevated free thyroxine levels, suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and presence of thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies consistent with(More)
Age is the greatest risk factor for breast cancer, but the reasons underlying this association are unclear. While there is undeniably a genetic component to all cancers, the accumulation of mutations with age is insufficient to explain the age-dependent increase in breast cancer incidence. In this viewpoint, we propose a multilevel framework to better(More)
Dyslipidemia and insulin resistance occur in a large proportion of HIV-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); anthropomorphic changes, such as lipoatrophy and central obesity, occur in a subset of patients. This cluster of clinical features, which is termed HIV lipodystrophy, places patients at increased risk for(More)