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OBJECT Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPI) is a promising new procedure for the treatment of dystonia. The authors describe their technical approach for placing electrodes into the GPI in awake patients with dystonia, including methodology for electrophysiological mapping of the GPI in the dystonic state, clinical outcomes and(More)
OBJECTIVES The globus pallidus internus (GPi) has been the primary target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat severe medication-refractory dystonia. Some patients with primary cervical or segmental dystonia develop subtle bradykinesia occurring in previously nondystonic body regions during GPi DBS. Subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS may provide an(More)
Idiopathic cranial-cervical dystonia (ICCD) is an adult-onset dystonia syndrome affecting orbicularis oculi, facial, oromandibular, and cervical musculature. ICCD is frequently difficult to treat medically. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) is a highly effective treatment for idiopathic generalized dystonia, however less is(More)
OBJECTIVE Thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) is commonly used to treat essential tremor, but the optimal lead location within the thalamus has not been systematically evaluated. We examined the relation of lead location to clinical outcome in a series of essential tremor patients treated by thalamic DBS. METHODS Fifty-seven leads in 37 patients were(More)
BACKGROUND The results from thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) for atypical tremor syndromes including tremor from multiple sclerosis (MS) and stroke are often disappointing. Three recent case reports have suggested that simultaneous stimulation of multiple thalamic targets can result in sustained improvement in such cases. METHODS We analyzed the(More)
BACKGROUND Deep brain stimulator (DBS) implantation has been shown to be effective in the treatment of various movement disorders including Parkinson's disease, essential tremor and dystonia. However, there is limited information regarding the potential use of DBS in Huntington's disease (HD). In this study, the authors present their findings on the(More)
BACKGROUND Anterocollis is a form of cervical dystonia characterized by forward neck flexion. While botulinum toxin is the treatment of choice for cervical dystonia, patients with anterocollis, who receive injections into the sternocleidomastoid and anterior scalene muscles, represent a disproportionate number of treatment failures. Deep cervical muscles(More)
Chorea is the predominant motor manifestation in the early symptomatic phase of adult onset Huntington's disease (HD). Pathologically, this stage is marked by differential loss of striatal neurons contributing to the indirect pathway. This pattern of neuronal loss predicts decreased neuronal firing rates in GPi and increased firing rates in GPe, the(More)
BACKGROUND Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an alternative target choice for treating primary dystonia, but little is known about the most effective programming parameters. OBJECTIVE Here we prospectively evaluate the effect of low versus high frequency subthalamic nucleus DBS in patients with predominantly cervical or upper extremity(More)
PURPOSE The expanding role of a clinical pharmacist at a Veterans Affairs (VA) out-patient clinic for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and movement disorders is described. SUMMARY San Francisco VA Medical Center added a clinical pharmacist to the multi-disciplinary team serving patients at an outpatient clinic operated by its Parkinson's Disease(More)