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Spinal cord injury causes secondary biochemical changes leading to neuronal cell death. To clarify the molecular basis of this delayed injury, we subjected rats to spinal cord injury and identified gene expression patterns by high-density oligonucleotide arrays (8,800 genes studied) at 30 minutes, 4 hours, 24 hours, or 7 days after injury (total of 26 U34A(More)
The effect of selective group I metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) antagonists 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) and (E)-2-methyl-6-(2-phenylethenyl)-pyridine (SIB-1893) on neuronal cell survival and post-traumatic recovery was examined using rat in vitro and in vivo trauma models. Treatment with MPEP and SIB-1893 showed significant(More)
Clinical dogma is that healthy urine is sterile and the presence of bacteria with an inflammatory response is indicative of urinary tract infection (UTI). Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) represents the state in which bacteria are present but the inflammatory response is negligible. Differentiating ABU from UTI is diagnostically challenging, but critical(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in inflammatory cascades associated with CNS injury. To examine the role of TNF alpha in the acute pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI), we studied its expression, localization and modulation in a clinically relevant rat model of non-penetrating head trauma. TNF alpha(More)
Although widely employed in studies of cerebral ischemia, the use of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been both limited and primarily confined to the first few hours after injury. Therefore, the present study examined the temporal evolution of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal changes from hours to weeks after(More)
Endocannabinoids, including 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine; AEA), have neuroprotective effects in the brain through actions at CB1 receptors. However, AEA also binds to vanilloid (VR1) receptors and induces cell death in several cell lines. Here we show that anandamide causes neuronal cell death in vitro and exacerbates(More)
Traumatic injury to the central nervous system initiates inflammatory processes that are implicated in secondary tissue damage. These processes include the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, leukocyte extravasation, vasogenic edema, and blood-brain barrier breakdown. Interleukin-10 (IL-10), a cytokine with antiinflammatory properties, negatively(More)
beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease and has been reported to induce apoptotic death in cell culture. Cysteine proteases, a family of enzymes known as caspases, mediate cell death in many models of apoptosis. Multiple caspases have been implicated in Abeta toxicity; these reports are conflicting. We show(More)
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and TRH analogues have been reported to be neuroprotective in experimental models of spinal cord injury and head injury. We have previously shown that a diketopiperazine structurally related to the TRH metabolite cyclo-his-pro reduces neuronal cell death in vitro and in vivo. Here we report the neuroprotective activity of(More)
We examined the temporal profile of apoptosis after fluid percussion-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats and investigated the potential pathophysiological role of caspase-3-like proteases in this process. DNA fragmentation was observed in samples from injured cortex and hippocampus, but not from contralateral tissue, beginning 4 hr after TBI and(More)