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The effect of selective group I metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) antagonists 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) and (E)-2-methyl-6-(2-phenylethenyl)-pyridine (SIB-1893) on neuronal cell survival and post-traumatic recovery was examined using rat in vitro and in vivo trauma models. Treatment with MPEP and SIB-1893 showed significant(More)
Spinal cord injury causes secondary biochemical changes leading to neuronal cell death. To clarify the molecular basis of this delayed injury, we subjected rats to spinal cord injury and identified gene expression patterns by high-density oligonucleotide arrays (8,800 genes studied) at 30 minutes, 4 hours, 24 hours, or 7 days after injury (total of 26 U34A(More)
Traumatic injury to the central nervous system initiates inflammatory processes that are implicated in secondary tissue damage. These processes include the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, leukocyte extravasation, vasogenic edema, and blood-brain barrier breakdown. Interleukin-10 (IL-10), a cytokine with antiinflammatory properties, negatively(More)
Although widely employed in studies of cerebral ischemia, the use of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been both limited and primarily confined to the first few hours after injury. Therefore, the present study examined the temporal evolution of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal changes from hours to weeks after(More)
Endocannabinoids, including 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine; AEA), have neuroprotective effects in the brain through actions at CB1 receptors. However, AEA also binds to vanilloid (VR1) receptors and induces cell death in several cell lines. Here we show that anandamide causes neuronal cell death in vitro and exacerbates(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in inflammatory cascades associated with CNS injury. To examine the role of TNF alpha in the acute pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI), we studied its expression, localization and modulation in a clinically relevant rat model of non-penetrating head trauma. TNF alpha(More)
Functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) may result in part from axon outgrowth and related plasticity through coordinated changes at the molecular level. We employed microarray analysis to identify a subset of genes the expression patterns of which were temporally coregulated and correlated to functional recovery after SCI. Steady-state mRNA(More)
We examined the temporal profile of apoptosis after fluid percussion-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats and investigated the potential pathophysiological role of caspase-3-like proteases in this process. DNA fragmentation was observed in samples from injured cortex and hippocampus, but not from contralateral tissue, beginning 4 hr after TBI and(More)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD; dystrophin-deficiency) causes dilated cardiomyopathy in the second decade of life in affected males. We studied the dystrophin-deficient mouse heart (mdx) using high-frequency echocardiography, histomorphometry, and gene expression profiling. Heart dysfunction was prominent at 9-10months of age and showed significantly(More)
Glutamate released during acute CNS insults acts at metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR), including group I mGluR. Blockade of group I mGluR during in vitro neuronal trauma provides neuroprotection, whereas activation exacerbates such injury. However, the effects of group I mGluR agonists or antagonists have been primarily studied in in vitro models(More)