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Immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X linked (IPEX, OMIM 304790) is a rare, recessive disorder resulting in aggressive autoimmunity and early death. Mutations in FOXP3 have been identified in 13 of 14 patients tested. Research in the mouse model, scurfy, suggests that autoimmunity may stem from a lack of working regulatory T cells. We(More)
Control of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) requires Th1-type immunity, of which CD8+ T cells play a unique role. High frequency Mtb-reactive CD8+ T cells are present in both Mtb-infected and uninfected humans. We show by limiting dilution analysis that nonclassically restricted CD8+ T cells are universally present, but predominate in(More)
Acute infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) rarely is identified, and hence, the determinants of spontaneous resolution versus chronicity remain incompletely understood. In particular, because of the retrospective nature and unknown source of infection in most human studies, direct evidence for emergence of escape mutations in immunodominant major(More)
Aging is usually accompanied by diminished immune protection upon infection or vaccination. Although aging results in well-characterized changes in the T cell compartment of long-lived, outbred, and pathogen-exposed organisms, their relevance for primary Ag responses remain unclear. Therefore, it remains unclear whether and to what extent the loss of naive(More)
The mechanisms mediating protective immunity to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are incompletely understood because early infection in humans is rarely identified, particularly in those individuals who subsequently demonstrate spontaneous virus eradication. We have established a large national network of patients with acute HCV infection. Here, we(More)
The scurfy mutant mouse is the genetic and phenotypic equivalent of the single-gene human autoimmune disease immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX). The scurfy mutation disrupts the Foxp3 gene, a putative master switch for T regulatory cell development. Bone marrow transplant without conditioning was previously reported to be(More)
BACKGROUND Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is characterized by impairment of viral effector T cell responses and a high propensity for viral persistence. Previous studies have demonstrated that chronic HCV infection is associated with an increased frequency of regulatory T (T(reg)) cells, compared with that in persons whose infection resolved and in(More)
BACKGROUND Cellular immune responses play a central role in the control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and in some individuals the adaptive immune response can spontaneously eradicate HCV infection. The development of vaccine candidates to prevent the spread of this infection remains a top priority; however, understanding the correlates of effective(More)
The control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is heavily dependent on the adaptive Th1 cellular immune response. Paradoxically, optimal priming of the Th1 response requires activation of priming dendritic cells with Th1 cytokine IFN-gamma. At present, the innate cellular mechanisms required for the generation of an optimal Th1 T cell response(More)