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BACKGROUND Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, due to in utero exposures may play a critical role in early programming for childhood and adult illness. Maternal smoking is a major risk factor for multiple adverse health outcomes in children, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. OBJECTIVE We investigated epigenome-wide methylation in(More)
BACKGROUND Autism comprises a spectrum of behavioral and cognitive disturbances of childhood development and is known to be highly heritable. Although numerous approaches have been used to identify genes implicated in the development of autism, less than 10% of autism cases have been attributed to single gene disorders. METHODS We describe the use of(More)
Depressed mood in pregnancy has been linked to low birth weight (LBW, < 2,500 g), a risk factor for adult-onset chronic diseases in offspring. We examined maternal depressed mood in relation to birth weight and evaluated the role of DNA methylation at regulatory sequences of imprinted genes in this association. We measured depressed mood among 922 pregnant(More)
A small genetic region near the telomere of ovine chromosome 18 was previously shown to carry the mutation causing the callipyge muscle hypertrophy phenotype in sheep. Expression of this phenotype is the only known case in mammals of paternal polar overdominance gene action. A region surrounding two positional candidate genes was sequenced in animals of(More)
In order to propagate a solid tumor, cancer cells must adapt to and survive under various tumor microenvironment (TME) stresses, such as hypoxia or lactic acidosis. To systematically identify genes that modulate cancer cell survival under stresses, we performed genome-wide shRNA screens under hypoxia or lactic acidosis. We discovered that genetic depletion(More)
Literature on maternal exposures and the risk of epigenetic changes or diseases in the offspring is growing. Paternal contributions are often not considered. However, some animal and epidemiologic studies on various contaminants, nutrition, and lifestyle-related conditions suggest a paternal influence on the offspring's future health. The phenotypic(More)
In infants exposed to maternal stress in utero, phenotypic plasticity through epigenetic events may mechanistically explain increased risk of preterm birth (PTB), which confers increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancers in adulthood. We examined associations between prenatal maternal stress and PTB, evaluating the(More)
The transforming growth factor-B (TGF-B) superfamily members , TGF-B, activin, and inhibin, all have prominent roles in regulating normal ovarian function. Betaglycan, or the type III TGF-B receptor, is a coreceptor that regulates TGF-B, activin, and inhibin signaling. Here, we show that betaglycan expression is frequently decreased or lost in epithelial(More)
BACKGROUND Data from epidemiological and animal model studies suggest that nutrition during pregnancy may affect the health status of subsequent generations. These transgenerational effects are now being explained by disruptions at the level of the epigenetic machinery. Besides in vitro environmental exposures, the possible impact on the reprogramming of(More)
Epigenetic plasticity in relation to in utero exposures may mechanistically explain observed differences in the likelihood of developing common complex diseases including hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular disease through the cumulative effects of subtle alterations in gene expression. Imprinted genes are essential mediators of growth and development(More)