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BACKGROUND Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, due to in utero exposures may play a critical role in early programming for childhood and adult illness. Maternal smoking is a major risk factor for multiple adverse health outcomes in children, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. OBJECTIVE We investigated epigenome-wide methylation in(More)
A small genetic region near the telomere of ovine chromosome 18 was previously shown to carry the mutation causing the callipyge muscle hypertrophy phenotype in sheep. Expression of this phenotype is the only known case in mammals of paternal polar overdominance gene action. A region surrounding two positional candidate genes was sequenced in animals of(More)
The evolution of genomic imprinting in mammals occurred more than 100 million years ago, and resulted in the formation of genes that are functionally haploid because of parent-of-origin-dependent expression. Despite ample evidence from studies in a number of species suggesting the presence of imprinted genes on human chromosome 14, their identity has(More)
BACKGROUND Autism comprises a spectrum of behavioral and cognitive disturbances of childhood development and is known to be highly heritable. Although numerous approaches have been used to identify genes implicated in the development of autism, less than 10% of autism cases have been attributed to single gene disorders. METHODS We describe the use of(More)
Epigenetic alterations may mechanistically explain the developmental origins of adult disease, namely the hypothesis that many complex adult chronic diseases originate as a result of conditions encountered in utero. If true, epigenetically regulated imprinted genes, critical to normal growth and development, may partially mediate these outcomes. We(More)
UNLABELLED Clinicians rely upon the severity of liver fibrosis to segregate patients with well-compensated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) into subpopulations at high- versus low-risk for eventual liver-related morbidity and mortality. We compared hepatic gene expression profiles in high- and low-risk NAFLD patients to identify processes that(More)
The cancer stem cell hypothesis posits that malignant growth arises from a rare population of progenitor cells within a tumor that provide it with unlimited regenerative capacity. Such cells also possess increased resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Resurgence of chemoresistant disease after primary therapy typifies epithelial ovarian cancer and may be(More)
For some members of the Paramyxoviridae family of negative strand RNA viruses, efficient genome replication only occurs when the total genome length is a multiple of six (6N length, where N is any integer). To determine if this "rule of six" requirement applied to the replication of the prototype paramyxovirus simian virus 5 (SV5), defective interfering(More)
Treatment of the breast cancer cell line, MDAMB468 with the DNA methylation inhibitor, 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC) results in growth arrest, whereas the growth of the normal breast epithelial line DU99 (telomerase immortalized) is relatively unaffected. Comparing gene expression profiles of these two lines after 5-AzaC treatment, we identified 36 genes that had(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Cirrhosis and liver cancer are potential outcomes of advanced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is not clear what factors determine whether patients will develop advanced or mild NAFLD, limiting noninvasive diagnosis and treatment before clinical sequelae emerge. We investigated whether DNA methylation profiles can distinguish(More)