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Apathy, primarily defined as a lack of motivation, commonly occurs in people with Parkinson disease (PD). Although dysfunction of basal ganglia pathways may contribute to apathy, the role of dopamine remains largely unknown. We investigated the role of dopaminergic pathways in the manifestation of apathetic behaviors by measuring the effects of the(More)
OBJECTIVE People with Parkinson disease (PD) frequently develop dementia, which is associated with neocortical deposition of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. In addition, neuronal loss and deposition of aggregated α-syn also occur in multiple subcortical nuclei that project to neocortical, limbic, and basal ganglia regions.(More)
Levodopa, when combined with a decarboxylase inhibitor, essentially delivers dopamine directly to the brain, with no net effect on brain blood vessels. For future neuroimaging studies of Parkinson disease and Tourette syndrome, we sought to rapidly produce a biologically relevant levodopa concentration in plasma and then maintain that concentration long(More)
OBJECTIVE Molecular imaging and clinical endpoints are frequently discordant in Parkinson disease clinical trials, raising questions about validity of these imaging measures to reflect disease severity. We compared striatal uptake for 3 positron emission tomography (PET) tracers with in vitro measures of nigral cell counts and striatal dopamine in(More)
OBJECTIVE Nigrostriatal reserve refers to the threshold of neuronal injury to dopaminergic cell bodies and their terminal fields required to produce parkinsonian motor deficits. Inferential studies have estimated striatal dopamine reserve to be at least 70%. Knowledge of this threshold is critical for planning interventions to prevent symptom onset or(More)
OBJECTIVE Development of an effective therapy to slow the inexorable progression of Parkinson disease requires a reliable, objective measurement of disease severity. In the present study, we compare presynaptic positron emission tomography (PET) tracer uptake in the substantia nigra (SN) to cell loss and motor impairment in(More)
A single unilateral intracarotid infusion of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) into non-human primates causes injury to the nigrostriatal pathway including nigral cell bodies, axons and striatal terminal fields. In this model, motor parkinsonism correlates well with the loss of nigral dopaminergic cell bodies but only correlates with in(More)
OBJECTIVE We evaluated the efficacy of the potent antioxidant C3 to salvage nigrostriatal neuronal function after 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) exposure in nonhuman primates. C3 is a first-in-class functionalized water-soluble fullerene that reduces oxygen radical species associated with neurodegeneration in in vitro studies. However,(More)
Objective: We evaluated the efficacy of the potent antioxidant C 3 to salvage nigrostriatal neuronal function after 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) exposure in nonhuman primates. C 3 is a first-in-class functional-ized water-soluble fullerene that reduces oxygen radical species associated with neurodegeneration in in vitro studies.(More)
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