Susan K. Halstead

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BACKGROUND Between October, 2013, and April, 2014, French Polynesia experienced the largest Zika virus outbreak ever described at that time. During the same period, an increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome was reported, suggesting a possible association between Zika virus and Guillain-Barré syndrome. We aimed to assess the role of Zika virus and dengue virus(More)
Anti-GD1a ganglioside antibodies (Abs) are the serological hallmark of the acute motor axonal form of the post-infectious paralysis, Guillain-Barre syndrome. Development of a disease model in mice has been impeded by the weak immunogenicity of gangliosides and the apparent resistance of GD1a-containing neural membranes to anti-GD1a antibody-mediated injury.(More)
Anti-GQ1b ganglioside antibodies are the serological hallmark of the Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) variant of the paralytic neuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and are believed to be the principal pathogenic mediators of the disease. In support of this, we previously showed in an in vitro mouse model of MFS that anti-GQ1b antibodies were able to bind and(More)
A large body of clinical and experimental data indicate that complement activation is an important mechanism for neuronal and glial injury in Guillain-Barré syndromes. Inhibition of complement activation therefore might be expected to limit the progression of the disease. Using in vitro and in vivo models of the Guillain-Barré syndrome variant, Miller(More)
Anti-disialoside antibodies (Abs) that bind NeuAc(alpha2-8) NeuAc epitopes on GQ1b and related gangliosides are found in human autoimmune neuropathy sera and are considered to be pathogenic. In a model system in mice, one mechanism by which anti-disialoside Abs have been demonstrated to induce paralysis is through a complement dependent blocking effect on(More)
Anti-GM1 ganglioside autoantibodies are used as diagnostic markers for motor axonal peripheral neuropathies and are believed to be the primary mediators of such diseases. However, their ability to bind and exert pathogenic effects at neuronal membranes is highly inconsistent. Using human and mouse monoclonal anti-GM1 antibodies to probe the GM1-rich motor(More)
The motor axonal variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome is associated with anti-GD1a immunoglobulin antibodies, which are believed to be the pathogenic factor. In previous studies we have demonstrated the motor terminal to be a vulnerable site. Here we show both in vivo and ex vivo, that nodes of Ranvier in intramuscular motor nerve bundles are also targeted by(More)
Guillain-Barré syndrome and its clinical variants, including the anti-GQ1b ganglioside-mediated Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), comprise the world's leading cause of acute neuromuscular paralysis. Presently, no specific drug therapies exist. The complement cascade, which is activated in these patients, forms an attractive drug target. In this study, we tested(More)
Miller Fisher syndrome-associated anti-GQ1b ganglioside antibodies produce an acute complement-dependent neuroexocytic effect at the mouse neuromuscular junction (NMJ) that closely resembles the effect of alpha-latrotoxin (LTx). This pathophysiological effect is accompanied by morphological disruption of the nerve terminal involving the loss of major(More)
Recent research into the Guillain-Barré syndromes (GBS) has focused on anti-ganglioside antibodies that correlate with specific clinical phenotypes. Our increasing understanding of the role of antibodies in mediating GBS has naturally focused our attention on complement involvement in the pathological procession. We have studied the axonal and glial(More)