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ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is a key regulatory enzyme in starch biosynthesis. However, plant AGPases differ in several parameters, including spatial and temporal expression, allosteric regulation, and heat stability. AGPases of cereal endosperms are heat labile, while those in other tissues, such as the potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber, are heat(More)
ADP-glucose (Glc) pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), a key regulatory enzyme in starch biosynthesis, is highly regulated. Transgenic approaches in four plant species showed that alterations in either thermal stability or allosteric modulation increase starch synthesis. Here, we show that the classic regulators 3-phosphoglyceric acid (3-PGA) and inorganic phosphate(More)
Site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic studies have been employed to identify amino acid residues involved in aspartate binding and transition state stabilization during the formation of beta-aspartyl-AMP in the reaction mechanism of Escherichia coli asparagine synthetase B (AS-B). Three conserved amino acids in the segment defined by residues 317-330 appear(More)
The site-directed chemical modifier [p-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl]adenosine (5'-FSBA) inactivates Escherichia coli asparagine synthetase B activity following pseudo-first-order kinetics, with ATP providing specific protection, with a Kd of 12 microM. The 5'-FSBA modification appears to be covalent, even though a nonstoichiometric amount (less than 10%) of(More)
The maize (Zea mays) shrunken-2 (Sh2) gene encodes the large subunit of the rate-limiting starch biosynthetic enzyme, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Expression of a transgenic form of the enzyme with enhanced heat stability and reduced phosphate inhibition increased maize yield up to 64%. The extent of the yield increase is dependent on temperatures during(More)
Iterative saturation mutagenesis (ISM) has been used to improve the thermostability of maize endosperm ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), a highly-regulated, rate-limiting and temperature-sensitive enzyme essential for starch biosynthesis. The thermo-sensitivity of heterotetrameric AGPase has been linked to grain loss in cereals and improving this(More)
Asparagine synthetase B catalyzes the assembly of asparagine from aspartate, Mg(2+)ATP, and glutamine. Here, we describe the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme from Escherichia colidetermined and refined to 2.0 A resolution. Protein employed for this study was that of a site-directed mutant protein, Cys1Ala. Large crystals were grown in the presence(More)
Although Arg-30, Asn-74, and Asn-79 appear totally conserved throughout the purF glutamine-dependent amidotransferases, their potential roles in catalysis and binding remain unexplored for any member of the enzyme family. Here we report the overexpression, purification, and kinetic characterization of a series of AS-B mutants which allow an examination of(More)
The mechanism of nitrogen transfer in glutamine-dependent amidotransferases remains to be unambiguously established. We now report the overexpression, purification, and kinetic characterization of both the glutamine- and ammonia-dependent activities of Escherichia coli asparagine synthetase B (AS-B) and a series of mutants. In common with other members of(More)
Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) catalyzes a rate-limiting step in starch biosynthesis. The reaction produces ADP-glucose and pyrophosphate from glucose-1-P and ATP. Investigations from a number of laboratories have shown that alterations in allosteric properties as well as heat stability of this enzyme have dramatic positive effects(More)