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Studies of the pedunculopontine (PPT) and laterodorsal tegmental (LDT) nuclei in the mesopontine tegmentum have emphasized the organization and projections of the cholinergic neurons. We report here that exhibiting glutamate immunoreactivity are present in both the LDT and PPT. These glutamatergic neurons are interspersed among the cholinergic neurons(More)
Ng-nitro-L-arginine (L-NArg), a potent nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, has been implicated as a potential mechanism for attenuating the development of tolerance to opioid drugs and for suppressing opioid withdrawal. Neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) express opioid receptors and these neurons exhibit both tolerance to chronic administration of opioids and(More)
In vitro studies have not consistently demonstrated naloxone-precipitated opiate-withdrawal hyperactivity of locus coeruleus neurons. The reason for this inconsistency may be because partial or complete withdrawal occurred during preparation of the locus coeruleus slice. The aim of the present study was to assay opiate withdrawal-related hyperactivity in(More)
Neuronal activation increases levels of Fos protein, the product of the early immediate gene c-fos. Since most studies used stimuli that evoke sustained elevations in activity; the present study examined Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI) in the nucleus locus coeruleus (LC). Halothane-anesthetized rats were given either footshock to elicit phasic activation(More)
To examine the role of nerve-specific (Na+, K+)-ATPase in chronic changes in noradrenergic activity, we examined the effects of noradrenergic denervation and hyperinnervation on p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity and on total and nerve-specific ouabain binding. High-affinity and erythrosin B-sensitive binding were compared as measurements of nerve-specific(More)
The extracellular electrophysiological properties of neurons in the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT), a major source of cholinergic afferents to the thalamus, were studied in chloral hydrate-anesthetized rats. A combination of antidromic activation from the thalamus and histological verification of recording sites was used to correlate the identity of(More)
Acute noradrenergic stimulation has previously been shown to stimulate brain (Na+, K+)-adenosine triphosphatase activity. Effects of repeated stimulation with piperoxane were examined in the present study. Daily piperoxane increased ouabain binding, measured 24 h after the last dose, after 4 days or 3 weeks treatment; K+-p-nitrophenylphosphatase was(More)
Organizations now routinely collect information about the needs of their consumers/users, but this information is not sufficiently utilized. This research investigates how encapsulating the user needs in a persona affects the resulting design decisions. Personas put a face on the target users and create a vivid design target by using a narrative, picture,(More)
Buprenorphine is a synthetic opioid proposed as a potential treatment for drug abuse. Although buprenorphine is widely considered to be a partial agonist at opioid receptors, little is known of its electrophysiological effects in the central nervous system. Because buprenorphine has been reported to have limited hedonic effects in humans, and since(More)
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