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During lung development, repair, and inflammation, local production of cytokines (eg, transforming growth factor-beta) and growth factors (eg, epidermal growth factor) by epithelial and mesenchymal cells mediate bidirectional growth control effectively creating an epithelial-mesenchymal trophic unit. In asthma the bronchial epithelium is highly abnormal,(More)
We have previously demonstrated that short-term exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) for 1 h induced a marked leukocytic infiltration in the airways of healthy human volunteers involving neutrophils, lymphocytes, and mast cells along with increases in several inflammatory mediators. We hypothesized that the leukocyte infiltration and the various inflammatory(More)
RATIONALE The molecular mechanisms involved in airway oxidative stress responses reported in healthy smokers and in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES To assess the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress responses in the bronchial epithelium of smokers with or without COPD and in relation to(More)
Pulmonary cells exposed to diesel exhaust (DE) particles in vitro respond in a hierarchical fashion with protective antioxidant responses predominating at low doses and inflammation and injury only occurring at higher concentrations. In the present study, the authors examined whether similar responses occurred in vivo, specifically whether antioxidants were(More)
In sensitized individuals, exposure to allergens such as Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) causes Th2 polarization and release of cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-13. Because Der p extracts also have direct effects on epithelial cells, we hypothesized that allergen augments the effects of Th2 cytokines by promoting mediator release from the bronchial(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Studies suggest that stroke patients with thrombus in a major cerebral vessel respond less favorably to intravenous (IV) thrombolysis. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a protocol comparing IV versus intra-arterial (IA) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) in an acute ischemic stroke with major vessel(More)
The delivery of safe high quality patient care is a major issue in clinical settings. However, the implementation of evidence-based practice and educational interventions are not always effective at improving performance. A staff-led behavioral management process was implemented in a large single-site acute (secondary and tertiary) hospital in the North of(More)
Studies of the correlation of subjective and objective sleep measures in depressed patients have produced mixed results so far. Further, they were carried out in sleep laboratories and tended to obtain one-off assessments, thus not taking into account the effect of treatment. We investigated forty (40) patients over the course of 8-week treatment of(More)
We investigated the functional connectivity of brain regions activated during opiate craving. Previously we used recorded autobiographical scripts to induce opiate craving in 12 abstinent opiate-dependent subjects while they were undergoing positron emission tomography (PET) scanning using the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) tracer H2 15O. SPM99 was(More)
Alcohol produces many subjective and objective effects in man including pleasure, sedation, anxiolysis, plus impaired eye movements and memory. In human volunteers we have used a newly available GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonist that is selective for the alpha5 subtype (a5IA) to evaluate the role of this subtype in mediating these effects of(More)