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During lung development, repair, and inflammation, local production of cytokines (eg, transforming growth factor-beta) and growth factors (eg, epidermal growth factor) by epithelial and mesenchymal cells mediate bidirectional growth control effectively creating an epithelial-mesenchymal trophic unit. In asthma the bronchial epithelium is highly abnormal,(More)
BACKGROUND Asthma is characterized pathologically by structural changes in the airway, termed airway remodeling. These changes are associated with worse long-term clinical outcomes and have been attributed to eosinophilic inflammation. In vitro studies indicate, however, that the compressive mechanical forces that arise during bronchoconstriction may induce(More)
We have previously demonstrated that short-term exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) for 1 h induced a marked leukocytic infiltration in the airways of healthy human volunteers involving neutrophils, lymphocytes, and mast cells along with increases in several inflammatory mediators. We hypothesized that the leukocyte infiltration and the various inflammatory(More)
RATIONALE The molecular mechanisms involved in airway oxidative stress responses reported in healthy smokers and in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES To assess the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress responses in the bronchial epithelium of smokers with or without COPD and in relation to(More)
BACKGROUND Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is a major therapeutic target in a range of chronic inflammatory disorders characterised by a Th1 type immune response in which TNFalpha is generated in excess. By contrast, asthma is regarded as a Th2 type disorder, especially when associated with atopy. However, as asthma becomes more severe and chronic,(More)
IgE plays an important role in allergic asthma. We hypothesized that reducing IgE in the airway mucosa would reduce airway inflammation. Forty-five patients with mild to moderate persistent asthma with sputum eosinophilia of 2% or more were treated with humanized monoclonal antibody against IgE (omalizumab) (n = 22) or placebo (n = 23) for 16 weeks.(More)
Data evaluating the safety of using weight-based dosing of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in obese patients are limited. Some manufacturers have recommended a maximum daily dose of LMWH not to be exceeded. The purpose of this study was to determine if body weight influenced the anticoagulant response to a weight-based dose of LMWH for the treatment of(More)
In aspirin-intolerant subjects, adverse bronchial and nasal reactions to cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors are associated with over-production of cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs) generated by the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway. In the bronchi of patients with aspirin-intolerant asthma, we previously linked cys-LT over-production and aspirin hyper-reactivity(More)
Pulmonary cells exposed to diesel exhaust (DE) particles in vitro respond in a hierarchical fashion with protective antioxidant responses predominating at low doses and inflammation and injury only occurring at higher concentrations. In the present study, the authors examined whether similar responses occurred in vivo, specifically whether antioxidants were(More)
In sensitized individuals, exposure to allergens such as Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) causes Th2 polarization and release of cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-13. Because Der p extracts also have direct effects on epithelial cells, we hypothesized that allergen augments the effects of Th2 cytokines by promoting mediator release from the bronchial(More)