Susan J. Larson

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A total of 28 cases of cervical spine dislocation with bilateral locking of facets treated between 1976 and 1984 were analyzed to determine whether treatment modality had any effect on outcome based on cord or root function. Motor vehicle accidents were responsible for 19 cases; the most common levels of dislocation were C-5, C-6 and C-6, C-7, with 10 each.(More)
It has been well documented that drug-associated cues are important for the development and expression of drug tolerance. The Pavlovian conditioning analysis of tolerance emphasizes the importance of a drug-associated cues to tolerance by equating a drug administration with a learning trial. According to this analysis, tolerance should be subject to(More)
Immune system activation has been shown to induce decreased interest in pleasurable stimuli. Studies of this phenomenon have assessed the effect of cytokines or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on behavior maintained by primary reinforcers, stimuli, such as palatable solutions, that effectively reinforce behavior without prior training. The studies reported in this(More)
BACKGROUND Thirty-three patients with nontuberculous pyogenic thoracic and lumbar vertebral osteomyelitis were treated surgically. Indications for surgery were either progression of disease despite adequate antibiotic therapy, neurologic deficit, or both. The most common initial symptom was back pain. Seven patients had diabetes, seven patients were(More)
This study was undertaken to investigate the dynamic response of human cervical spine ligaments. Uniaxial tensile failure tests were conducted on anterior longitudinal ligament (AL) and ligamentum flavum (LF) structures. These ligaments were tested under in situ conditions by transecting all the elements except the one (AL or LF) under study. A fixture was(More)
Three intact cadavers and 10 isolated cervical spinal columns underwent compression, with forces directed vertically, forward, or rearward. Failure modes were often different than force directions. The loads required to produce bony injury or ligamentous disruption ranged from 645 to 7439 N. Flexion and extension injuries were produced at approximately 50%(More)
This study was conducted to evaluate the biodynamic strength and localized kinematic response of the human cervical spine under axial loading applied to the head. Intact ligamentous fresh human cadaveric head-neck complexes were subjected to dynamic compressive forces with a custom-designed electrohydraulic testing device at varying rates. The structure(More)