Susan J . Hayflick

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BACKGROUND Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by dystonia, parkinsonism, and iron accumulation in the brain. Many patients with this disease have mutations in the gene encoding pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2); these patients are said to have pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. In this study, we compared(More)
Neurodegenerative disorders with high brain iron include Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and several childhood genetic disorders categorized as neuroaxonal dystrophies. We mapped a locus for infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) and neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) to chromosome 22q12-q13 and identified mutations in PLA2G6,(More)
Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome (HSS) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder associated with iron accumulation in the brain. Clinical features include extrapyramidal dysfunction, onset in childhood, and a relentlessly progressive course. Histologic study reveals iron deposits in the basal ganglia. In this respect, HSS may serve as a model for(More)
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) describes a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders characterised by high brain iron and the presence of axonal spheroids, usually limited to the central nervous system. Mutations in the PANK2 gene account for the majority of NBIA cases and cause an autosomal recessive inborn error of coenzyme A(More)
OBJECTIVE Mutations in the gene encoding phospholipase A(2) group VI (PLA2G6) are associated with two childhood neurologic disorders: infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) and idiopathic neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). INAD is a severe progressive psychomotor disorder in which axonal spheroids are found in brain, spinal cord, and(More)
BACKGROUND Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) defines a group of genetic disorders characterized by brain iron deposition and associated with neuronal death. The known causes of NBIA include pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), neuroferritinopathy, infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD), and aceruloplasminemia. (More)
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) describes a group of progressive extrapyramidal disorders with radiographic evidence of focal iron accumulation in the brain, usually in the basal ganglia. Patients previously diagnosed with Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome fall into this category. Mutations in the PANK2 gene account for the majority of NBIA(More)
NBIA characterizes a class of neurodegenerative diseases that feature a prominent extrapyramidal movement disorder, intellectual deterioration, and a characteristic deposition of iron in the basal ganglia. The diagnosis of NBIA is made on the basis of the combination of representative clinical features along with MR imaging evidence of iron accumulation. In(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy is a rare neurodegenerative disorder, with onset in the first 2 years of life. Mutations in the PLA2G6 gene were identified in patients with infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy. Our purpose was to review clinical, neurophysiologic, neuroradiologic and neuropathological features of our patients in order to(More)
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation encompasses a heterogeneous group of rare neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by iron accumulation in the brain. Severe generalized dystonia is frequently a prominent symptom and can be very disabling, causing gait impairment, difficulty with speech and swallowing, pain and respiratory distress.(More)