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Müller glia can serve as a source of new neurons after retinal damage in both fish and birds. Investigations of regeneration in the mammalian retina in vitro have provided some evidence that Müller glia can proliferate after retinal damage and generate new rods; however, the evidence that this occurs in vivo is not conclusive. We have investigated whether(More)
Remodeling of the chromatin network plays an important role regulating embryonic development as well as differentiation. The SWI/SNF complex is an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex. It consists of several proteins, including an ATPase subunit, either Brg1 or Brm. Two subunits of this complex, Baf53a and Baf45, have been previously identified as(More)
The FYVE domain binds with high specificity and avidity to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. It is present in approximately 30 proteins in humans, some of which have been implicated in functions ranging from early endosome fusion to signal transduction through the TGF-beta receptor. To develop a further understanding of the biological roles of this protein(More)
The correct patterning of opsin expression in cone photoreceptors is critical for normal color vision. Thyroid hormone, and one of its receptors [thyroid hormone receptor beta2 (TRbeta2)], is an important regulator of opsin expression during cone photoreceptor development. Mice have two genes, encoding medium-wavelength (M) and short-wavelength (S) cone(More)
The chicken retina is capable of limited regeneration. In response to injury, some Müller glia proliferate and de-differentiate into progenitor cells. However, most of these progenitors fail to differentiate into neurons. The Notch pathway is upregulated during retinal regeneration in both fish and amphibians. Since the Notch signaling pathway maintains(More)
Transforming growth factor (TGF)beta is an important physiological regulator of cellular growth and differentiation. It activates a receptor threonine/serine kinase that phosphorylates the transcription factor Smad2, which then translocates into the nucleus to trigger specific transcriptional events. Here we show that activated type I and II TGF beta(More)
ransforming growth factor (TGF) ␤ is an important physiological regulator of cellular growth and differentiation. It activates a receptor threonine/serine kinase that phosphorylates the transcription factor Smad2, which then translocates into the nucleus to trigger specific tran-scriptional events. Here we show that activated type I and II TGF ␤ receptors(More)
The FYVE domain is a conserved protein motif characterized by its ability to bind with high affinity and specificity to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P), a phosphoinositide highly enriched in early endosomes. The PI3P polar head group contacts specific amino acid residues that are conserved among FYVE domains. Despite full conservation of these(More)
The FYVE domain is an approx. 80 amino acid motif that binds to the phosphoinositide PtdIns3P with high specificity and affinity. It is present in 38 predicted gene products within the human genome, but only in 12-13 in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. Eight of these are highly conserved in all three organisms, and they include proteins(More)
Ca2+ is an essential requirement in membrane fusion, acting through binding proteins such as calmodulin (CaM). Ca2+/CaM is required for early endosome fusion in vitro, however, the molecular basis for this requirement is unknown. An additional requirement for endosome fusion is the protein Early Endosome Antigen 1 (EEA1), and its recruitment to the endosome(More)