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The alpha chain of the human histocompatibility antigen HLA-G was identified as an array of five 37- to 39-kilodalton isoforms by the use of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Both cell-associated and secreted HLA-G antigens are prominent in first trimester villous cytotrophoblasts and are greatly reduced in third trimester cytotrophoblasts. Allelic(More)
FAK is known as an integrin- and growth factor-associated tyrosine kinase promoting cell motility. Here we show that, during mouse development, FAK inactivation results in p53- and p21-dependent mesodermal cell growth arrest. Reconstitution of primary FAK-/-p21-/- fibroblasts revealed that FAK, in a kinase-independent manner, facilitates p53 turnover via(More)
Cytotrophoblasts, specialized placental cells, proliferate early in pregnancy and then differentiate into tumor-like cells that establish blood flow to the placenta by invading the uterus and its vasculature. In this study, cytotrophoblasts cultured under hypoxic conditions (2 percent oxygen), mimicking the environment near the uterine surface before 10(More)
The specialized interaction between embryonic and maternal tissues is unique to mammalian development. This interaction begins with invasion of the uterus by the first differentiated embryonic cells, the trophoblasts, and culminates in formation of the placenta. The transient tumor-like behavior of cytotrophoblasts, which peaks early in pregnancy, is(More)
Human fetal development depends on the embryo rapidly gaining access to the maternal circulation. The trophoblast cells that form the fetal portion of the human placenta have solved this problem by transiently exhibiting certain tumor-like properties. Thus, during early pregnancy fetal cytotrophoblast cells invade the uterus and its arterial network. This(More)
During normal human pregnancy a subpopulation of fetal cytotrophoblast stem cells differentiate and invade the uterus and its arterioles. In the pregnancy disease preeclampsia, cytotrophoblast differentiation is abnormal and invasion is shallow. Thus, the placenta is relatively hypoxic. We investigated whether lowering oxygen tension affects cytotrophoblast(More)
This work focuses on the simulation of mechanical contact between nonlinearly elastic objects such as the components of the human body. The computation of the reaction forces that actonthecontactsurfaces(contact forces) is the key for designing a reliable contact handling algorithm. In traditional methods, contact forces are often defined as discontinuous(More)
HLA-G is the only class I determinant of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expressed by the trophoblasts, the fetal cells invading the maternal decidua during pregnancy. A unique feature of this nonclassical HLA molecule is its low polymorphism, a property that has been postulated to play an important role in preventing local activation of maternal(More)
Trophoblast adhesion to the uterine wall is the requisite first step of implantation and, subsequently, placentation. At the maternal-fetal interface, we investigated the expression of selectin adhesion systems that enable leukocyte capture from the bloodstream. On the maternal side, human uterine epithelial cells up-regulated selectin oligosaccharide-based(More)
Already in 2006 the group of Irina Klimanskaya / Robert Lanza had published a controversially discussed paper on the generation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) from cells that had been obtained by blastomere biopsy. Title and abstract of that paper suggested that removal of one or only few cells from an embryo could be sufficient, and that the(More)