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The alpha chain of the human histocompatibility antigen HLA-G was identified as an array of five 37- to 39-kilodalton isoforms by the use of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Both cell-associated and secreted HLA-G antigens are prominent in first trimester villous cytotrophoblasts and are greatly reduced in third trimester cytotrophoblasts. Allelic(More)
Establishment of the human placenta requires that fetal cytotrophoblast stem cells in anchoring chorionic villi become invasive. These cytotrophoblasts aggregate into cell columns and invade both the uterine interstitium and vasculature, anchoring the fetus to the mother and establishing blood flow to the placenta. Cytotrophoblasts colonizing spiral(More)
In human pregnancy, placental cytotrophoblasts that invade the uterus downregulate the expression of adhesion receptors that are characteristic of their epithelial origin, and upregulate the expression of adhesion receptors that are expressed by vascular cells. We suggest that this transformation could be critical to endovascular invasion, the process(More)
The specialized interaction between embryonic and maternal tissues is unique to mammalian development. This interaction begins with invasion of the uterus by the first differentiated embryonic cells, the trophoblasts, and culminates in formation of the placenta. The transient tumor-like behavior of cytotrophoblasts, which peaks early in pregnancy, is(More)
Human placental development combines elements of tumorigenesis and vasculogenesis. The organ's specialized epithelial cells, termed cytotrophoblasts, invade the uterus where they reside in the interstitial compartment. They also line uterine arteries and veins. During invasion, ectodermally derived cytotrophoblasts undergo pseudovasculogenesis, switching(More)
FAK is known as an integrin- and growth factor-associated tyrosine kinase promoting cell motility. Here we show that, during mouse development, FAK inactivation results in p53- and p21-dependent mesodermal cell growth arrest. Reconstitution of primary FAK-/-p21-/- fibroblasts revealed that FAK, in a kinase-independent manner, facilitates p53 turnover via(More)
Trophoblast cells of the placenta are established at the blastocyst stage and differentiate into specialized subtypes after implantation. In mice, the outer layer of the placenta consists of trophoblast giant cells that invade the uterus and promote maternal blood flow to the implantation site by producing cytokines with angiogenic and vasodilatory actions.(More)
BACKGROUND Advanced-stage follicular B-cell lymphoma is considered incurable. Anti-CD20 radioimmunotherapy is effective in patients who have had a relapse after chemotherapy or who have refractory follicular lymphoma, but it has not been tested in previously untreated patients. METHODS Seventy-six patients with stage III or IV follicular lymphoma received(More)
The mammalian embryo cannot develop without the placenta. Its specialized cells (trophoblast, endoderm, and extraembryonic mesoderm) form early in development. They attach the embryo to the uterus (implantation) and form vascular connections necessary for nutrient transport. In addition, the placenta redirects maternal endocrine, immune, and metabolic(More)
Development of the human embryo depends on the ability of first trimester cytotrophoblastic stem cells to differentiate and invade the uterus. In this process, transient expression of an invasive phenotype is part of normal cytotrophoblast differentiation. Morphologically, this process begins when polarized chorionic villus cytotrophoblasts form(More)