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An understanding of DNA methylation and its potential role in gene control during development, aging and cancer has been hampered by a lack of sensitive methods which can resolve exact methylation patterns from only small quantities of DNA. We have now developed a genomic sequencing technique which is capable of detecting every methylated cytosine on both(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small noncoding RNAs commonly deregulated in cancer. The miR-200 family (miR-200a, -200b, -200c, -141 and -429) and miR-205 are frequently silenced in advanced cancer and have been implicated in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor invasion by targeting the transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin, ZEB1 and ZEB2. ZEB1(More)
CONTEXT Recent case reports detail the successful use of temozolomide in the management of aggressive pituitary tumours. O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is a DNA repair protein that counteracts the effect of temozolomide. OBJECTIVE To study MGMT expression in pituitary tumours and consider whether MGMT expression is associated with(More)
Hypermethylation in cancer often occurs in CpG islands that span the promoter regions of tumor suppressor genes. However, it is not clear if hypermethylation is limited to single target genes or if multiple genes are simultaneously methylated. To understand the extent of aberrant de novo methylation, we have analyzed the methylation pattern of a number of(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ∼22 nt non-coding RNAs that typically bind to the 3' UTR of target mRNAs in the cytoplasm, resulting in mRNA destabilization and translational repression. Here, we report that miRNAs can also regulate gene expression by targeting non-coding antisense transcripts in human cells. Specifically, we show that miR-671 directs cleavage of a(More)
BACKGROUND Docetaxel is the first-line chemotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, response rates are ∼50% and determined quite late in the treatment schedule, thus non-responders are subjected to unnecessary toxicity. The potential of circulating microRNAs as early biomarkers of docetaxel response in CRPC patients was(More)
Methylation analysis of individual cytosines in genomic DNA can be determined quantitatively by bisulphite treatment and PCR amplification of the target DNA sequence, followed by restriction enzyme digestion or sequencing. Methylated and unmethylated molecules, however, have different sequences after bisulphite conversion. For some sequences this can result(More)
Inactivation of p16INK4 tumor suppressor gene function is frequently observed in breast cancer. We examined p16INK4 expression in human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) cultures established from four normal donors. Normal HMECs divide a limited number of times before proliferation ceases in a state referred to as selection (or M0). The cell subpopulation that(More)
Developmental effects of exposure to endocrine disruptors can influence adult characters in mammals, but could also have evolutionary consequences. The aim of this study was to simulate an environmental exposure of an experimental population of mice to high amounts of nutritional phytoestrogens and to evaluate parameters of relevance for evolutionary change(More)