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The rate hypothesis of psychoactive drug action holds that the faster a drug reaches the brain and starts to act, the greater its reinforcing effects and abuse liability. A previous human study using a single cocaine dose confirmed the rate hypothesis for subjective responses, but found no rate effect on cardiovascular responses. We evaluated the rate(More)
BACKGROUND Cocaine treatment upregulates brain mu-opioid receptors (mOR) in animals. Human data regarding this phenomenon are limited. We previously used positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]-carfentanil to show increased mOR binding in brain regions of 10 cocaine-dependent men after 1 and 28 days of abstinence. METHODS Regional brain mOR binding(More)
This study investigates the clinical significance of a cannabis withdrawal syndrome in 104 adult, non-treatment-seeking, primarily cannabis users who reported at least one serious attempt to stop using cannabis. Retrospective self-report data were obtained on eighteen potential cannabis withdrawal symptoms derived from the literature, including(More)
Gender differences in tobacco withdrawal are of considerable clinical importance, but research findings on this topic have been mixed. Methodological variation in samples sizes, experimental design, and measures across studies may explain the inconsistent results. The current study examined whether male (n = 101) and female (n = 102) smokers (> or =15(More)
RATIONALE Cocaine users have increased regional brain mu-opioid receptor (mOR) binding which correlates with cocaine craving. The relationship of mOR binding to relapse is unknown. OBJECTIVE To evaluate regional brain mOR binding as a predictor of relapse to cocaine use is the objective of the study. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifteen nontreatment-seeking,(More)
RATIONALE A single 90-mg dose of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant attenuates effects of smoked cannabis in humans. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study is to evaluate whether repeated daily 40-mg doses of rimonabant can attenuate effects of smoked cannabis to the same extent as a single higher (90 mg) dose. MATERIALS AND METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Cocaine users not seeking treatment have increased regional brain mu-opioid receptor (mOR) binding that correlates with cocaine craving and tendency to relapse. In cocaine-abusing outpatients in treatment, the relationship of mOR binding and treatment outcome is unknown. METHODS We determined whether regional brain mOR binding before treatment(More)
In 2004, a team comprised of researchers and service providers launched the Safer Crack Use, Outreach, Research and Education (SCORE) project in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The project was aimed at developing a better understanding of the harms associated with crack cocaine smoking and determining the feasibility of(More)
This study examined associations between three temperament dimensions measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory-125 [Cloninger, C.R. (1992). The Temperament and Character Inventory-125 (TCI-125; Version 1.)] and tobacco abstinence effects. Smokers (N=203, >/= 15 cigarettes/day) attended two laboratory sessions, one following 12 h of abstinence and(More)
BACKGROUND This article highlights the experiences of a unique group. In January 2011, Dave Murray organized a group of participants from the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI) heroin-assisted treatment clinical trials from 2005 to 2008 in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver (DTES), B.C., Canada. The NAOMI Patients Association (NPA) is an(More)