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The rat has been explored in detail for its in utero susceptibility to male reproductive tract malformation following phthalate exposure. Few other species have been studied in detail, and it is important for both mechanistic and risk assessment purposes to understand the species specificity of this response. We investigated the response of the fetal mouse(More)
Tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) is a small aliphatic alcohol with multiple industrial and scientific uses. A comprehensive pharmacokinetic profile for TBA has not been determined in rats. The purpose of this study was to fully characterize the pharmacokinetics of TBA in male and female F-344 rats following intravenous administration of 37.5, 75, 150 and 300(More)
Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) and its metabolite tertiary-butanol (TBA) both cause renal tumors in chronically exposed male rats. Knowledge of the kinetic behavior of MTBE and TBA in rats and its comparison to the kinetics of these chemicals in humans will aid in assessing human risk. The objective of this study was to develop a physiologically based(More)
Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is an oxygenated fuel additive used to decrease carbon monoxide emissions during combustion. MTBE is a nongenotoxic chemical that induces Leydig cell tumors (LCT) in male rats. The mechanism of MTBE-induced LCT is not known; however, LCT induced by other nongenotoxic chemicals have been associated with the disruption of the(More)
alpha 2u-N is a syndrome that has been characterized in male rats exposed to a number of environmental chemicals and pharmacological agents. The chemicals or their metabolites bind to alpha 2u, which is believed to lead to a less digestible chemical-protein complex. Because of the decreased hydrolysis of the chemical-protein complex in the lysosome, alpha(More)
alpha 2u-Globulin nephropathy is an important toxicologic syndrome that occurs in male rats following exposure to a number of important industrial and environmental chemicals. A low, but significant incidence of renal neoplasia develops in male rats as a chronic sequela to the disease. Studies on the pathogenesis of alpha 2u-globulin nephropathy have(More)
Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is added to gasoline to reduce carbon monoxide and ozone precursors from automobile emissions. The objectives of this study were to verify the ability of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict MTBE blood levels in humans and to investigate the effect of variability in the metabolism of MTBE and its(More)
Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a gasoline additive that causes renal tumors in male rats. In the process of measuring chemical specific parameters necessary to develop a quantitative dosimetry model of MTBE in rats, the uptake of MTBE was found to be 5.5 times greater in male than in female F-344 rat kidney homogenate. The objectives of this study were(More)
tert-Butyl alcohol (TBA) has been shown to cause kidney tumors in male rats following chronic administration in drinking water. The objective of the present study was to determine whether TBA induces alpha 2u-globulin (alpha 2u) nephropathy (alpha 2u-N) and enhanced renal cell proliferation in male, but not female, F-344 rats, and whether the dosimetry of(More)
The oxygenate tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) is a gasoline fuel additive used to reduce carbon monoxide in automobile emissions. To evaluate the relative health risk of TAME as a gasoline additive, information is needed on its pharmacokinetics and toxicity. The objective of this study was to use a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to(More)