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The method of exchangeable pairs has emerged as an important tool in proving limit theorems for Poisson, normal and other classical approximations. Here the method is used in a simulation context. We estimate transition probabilitites from the simulations and use these to reduce variances. Exchangeable pairs are used as control variates. Finally, a general(More)
Inferential summaries of tree estimates are useful in the setting of evolutionary biology, where phylogenetic trees have been built from DNA data since the 1960's. In bioinformatics, psychometrics and data mining, hierarchical clustering techniques output the same mathematical objects, and practitioners have similar questions about the stability and(More)
This chapter reviews statistical testing involving phylogenies. We present both the classical framework with the use of sampling distributions involving the bootstrap and permutation tests and the Bayesian approach using posterior distributions. We give some examples of direct tests for deciding whether the data support a given tree or trees that share a(More)
This is a survey of the use of the bootstrap in the area of systematic and evolutionary biology. I present the current usage by biologists of the bootstrap as a tool both for making inferences and for evaluating robustness, and propose a framework for thinking about these problems in terms of mathematical statistics. The objects of study in systematics are(More)
Classical multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a method for visualizing high-dimensional point clouds by mapping to low-dimensional Euclidean space. This mapping is defined in terms of eigenfunctions of a matrix of inter-point dissimilarities. In this paper we analyze in detail multidimensional scaling applied to a specific dataset: the 2005 United States(More)
The purpose of this article is to document the discussions at the 2010 European Workshop on Equivalence Determinations for Orally Inhaled Drugs for Local Action, cohosted by the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine (ISAM) and the International Pharmaceutical Consortium on Regulation and Science (IPAC-RS). The article summarizes current regulatory(More)
Introduction Four decades ago, Mikio Sato and John Tate predicted the shape of probability distributions to which certain " error terms " in number theory conform. Their prediction—known as the Sato-Tate Conjecture—has been verified for an important class of cases thanks to the recent work of [18], combined with Richard Taylor's most recent [54], which(More)
The purpose of this article is to catalogue in a systematic way the available information about factors that may influence the outcome and variability of cascade impactor (CI) measurements of pharmaceutical aerosols for inhalation, such as those obtained from metered dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs) or products for nebulization; and to(More)
We aim to detect minor variant Hepatitis B viruses (HBV) in 38 pyrosequencing samples from infected individuals. Errors involved in the amplification and ultra deep pyrosequencing (UDPS) of these samples are characterised using HBV plasmid controls. Homopolymeric regions and quality scores are found to be significant covariates in determining insertion and(More)