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for their insightful comments and suggestions. We are also deeply indebted to the many administrators, scientists, managers, and entrepreneurs who agreed to be interviewed. ABSTRACT We present quantitative and qualitative evidence on the productivity of university technology transfer offices (TTOs). Our empirical results suggest that TTO activity is(More)
It is April 27, 2010, and Kate has decided she wants to buy a new car. Her WebPad brings up many sites, and she narrows her choice to two: Ford.com and Buildyourowncar.com. for helpful discussions. We are also grateful to the many people in the industry that we have interviewed, most of whom have asked that their firms not be identified. 1 On Ford.com, she(More)
1 " Different regions of the country, different metropolitan areas, and even different counties within the same metropolitan area differ greatly in their manufacturing industries, technology levels , wages, and plant sizes. " Findings Analysis of data on employment, earnings, and the number of business establishments engaged in U.S. manufacturing finds(More)
In 1980 Japan surpassed the United States as the world's leading producer of automobiles. Not only does Japan now produce the greatest number of cars of any country in the world [9], it introduces new models with the greatest frequency [7], makes them in factories with the highest productivity [19], and dominates surveys of customer satisfaction and(More)
Alfred Chandler attributed the rise of the vertically integrated corporation in the twentieth century to improvements in transportation and communication. In contrast, many have argued that further advances in transportation and communication have made vertical integration obsolete in recent years, replacing it with modularity, outsourcing, and networking.(More)
* The thoughts for this paper gained clarity through many discussions with numerous people. I am thankful for helpful comments on my work on product architectures from errors and viewpoints taken in this paper remain my own. Research support from the Materials Systems Laboratory (MSL) and the International Motor Vehicle Program (IMVP) at MIT is gratefully(More)
1 " Public policy is needed to help strengthen manufacturing and promote a high-wage, innovative, export-intensive, and environmentally sustainable manufacturing base. " Summary Manufacturing matters to the United States because it provides high-wage jobs, commercial innovation (the nation's largest source), a key to trade deficit reduction, and a(More)
Joint product development, in which suppliers and automakers share the responsibility for component design, has given Japanese auto companies an important competitive advantage in both quality and new model lead times [Clark, 1989]. In contrast, U.S. automakers until recently left little room for suppliers' participation in the design process; vendors(More)