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We have investigated the organization, on the plasma membrane and in detergent-insoluble membrane vesicles, of two neuronal glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored (GPI) proteins: Thy-1, a negative regulator of transmembrane signalling; and prion protein, whose rapid endocytosis and Cu(2+) binding suggest that it functions in metal ion uptake. Prion protein(More)
Recently it has been demonstrated that the growth-associated protein GAP-43 is not confined to neurons but is also expressed by certain central nervous system glial cells in tissue culture and in vivo. This study has extended these observations to the major class of glial cells in the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells. Using immunohistochemical(More)
The changing electrical and morphological properties of demyelinating and remyelinating nerve fibres have been studied in rat ventral roots after intrathecal injection of lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC). The spatial distribution of electrical excitability within the lesion has been studied in undissected single fibres using high-resolution longitudinal(More)
Several observations suggest that tumour necrosis factor (TNF) plays a role in demyelination, although direct evidence for this is lacking. We have examined ultrastructurally rat sciatic nerves injected with TNF-alpha or TNF-beta: the effects of the two cytokines were found to be qualitatively similar. One day after injection nerves were oedematous and(More)
A coculture method is described for ensheathing glial cells from adult rat olfactory nerve, serving as a substrate for the regrowth of neurites from adult rat retinal ganglion cells. Immunocytochemically identified phenotypes present in primary cultures of olfactory nerve cells are described, and their ability to promote neurite outgrowth is compared with(More)
Axonal degeneration can be an important cause of permanent disability in neurological disorders in which inflammation is prominent, including multiple sclerosis and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The mechanisms responsible for the degeneration remain unclear, but it is likely that axons succumb to factors produced at the site of inflammation, such as nitric oxide(More)
Axonal degeneration is a major cause of permanent deficit in inflammatory neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Axons undergo degeneration specifically at the site of the inflammatory lesions, suggesting that locally produced inflammatory factors mediate the phenomenon. One such factor is nitric oxide (NO), which we have previously reported can(More)
The changes in the conduction properties of peripheral nerve fibres of the mouse were examined during the phases of segmental demyelination, and remyelination, following the intraneural injection of lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC). In this lesion the sequence of the morphological changes was well synchronised in the different calibre fibres and this(More)
Mammalian peripheral nerve fibres can regenerate after injury. Repair is most likely to succeed if axons are simply crushed or have only a very short (less than 0.5 cm) interstump gap to cross and most likely to fail if the interstump gap is long (greater than 1 cm) and associated with soft tissue damage. Whereas reactive axonal sprouting appears to be an(More)
BACKGROUND This is a "proof of concept study" to test the hypothesis that pulsed radiofrequency, PRF, produces cell stress at the primary afferent level without signs of overt thermal damage. We assumed that cell stress would result in impairment of normal function, and used the expression of activating transcription factor 3, ATF3, as an indicator of(More)