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p53 induces apoptosis by target gene regulation and transcription-independent signaling. However, a mechanism for the latter was unknown. We recently reported that a fraction of induced p53 translocates to the mitochondria of apoptosing tumor cells. Targeting p53 to mitochondria is sufficient to launch apoptosis. Here, we provide evidence that p53(More)
p53's apoptotic program consists of transcription-dependent and transcription-independent pathways. In the latter, physical interactions between mitochondrial p53 and anti- and pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl2 family of mitochondrial permeability regulators are central. Using isogenic cell systems with defined deficiencies, we characterize in detail how(More)
Despite strong homology, the roles of TP53 and TP73 in tumorigenesis seem to be fundamentally different. In contrast to TP53, tumor-associated overexpression of TP73 in many different cancers, combined with virtual absence of inactivating mutations and lack of a cancer phenotype in the TP73 null mouse are inconsistent with a suppressor function but instead(More)
p53 promotes apoptosis in response to death stimuli by transactivation of target genes and by transcription-independent mechanisms. We recently showed that wild-type p53 rapidly translocates to mitochondria in response to multiple death stimuli in cultured cells. Mitochondrial p53 physically interacts with antiapoptotic Bcl proteins, induces Bak(More)
A major function of the p53 tumor suppressor is the induction of a pleiotropic apoptotic program in response to stress through transcription-dependent and -independent mechanisms. In particular, this includes a direct apoptotic role of p53 at the mitochondria. Stress-induced p53 translocation to the mitochondria with subsequent outer membrane(More)
The induction of apoptosis by p53 in response to cellular stress is its most conserved function and crucial for p53 tumor suppression. We recently reported that p53 directly induces oligomerization of the BH1,2,3 effector protein Bak, leading to outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (OMMP) with release of apoptotic activator proteins. One important(More)
The transcription-independent p53-mediated apoptotic response has obtained a solid mechanistic basis in recent years. A fraction of stress-induced wild type p53 protein rapidly translocates to mitochondria in response to genotoxic, hypoxic, and oxidative stresses in established cell lines and primary cells, as well as in physiological and pathophysiologic(More)
It is now well established that a fraction of stress-induced wtp53 protein rapidly translocates to mitochondria in immortalized and transformed cells in culture. Mitochondrial p53 interacts with anti-apoptotic proteins of the Bcl 2 family at the outer mitochondrial membrane, resulting in membrane permeabilization, release of death effectors such as(More)