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The marine red alga Porphyra is an important marine crop, worth ∼US$1.3 billion per year. Cultivation research now includes farm ecology, breeding, strain conservation and new net-seeding technologies. The success of cultivation is due, in part, to the high stress tolerance of Porphyra. Many species of Porphyra lose 85-95% of their cellular water during the(More)
Mathematical and experimental simulations predict that external fertilization is unsuccessful in habitats characterized by high water motion. A key assumption of such predictions is that gametes are released in hydrodynamic regimes that quickly dilute gametes. We used fucoid seaweeds to examine whether marine organisms in intertidal and subtidal habitats(More)
We determined the distribution of F-actin in fucoid (Pelvetia, Fucus) embryos with nitrobenzoxadiazole-phallacidin, and studied the effect of cytochalasin upon the endogenous currents associated with cell polarization by using the vibrating probe. F-actin is not localized at the presumptive rhizoid immediately after experimental induction of the polar axis(More)
The North Atlantic intertidal community provides a rich set of organismal and environmental material for the study of ecological genetics. Clearly defined environmental gradients exist at multiple spatial scales: there are broad latitudinal trends in temperature, meso-scale changes in salinity along estuaries, and smaller scale gradients in desiccation and(More)
The daily settlement of eggs and zygotes of the monoecious brown alga Pelvetia compressa (J. Agardh) De Toni was measured on artificial substrata in areas inside and outside patches of adults in the high intertidal zone of central California. Settlement was generally 1–2 orders of magnitude higher under the adult canopy. This pattern seems to be due to the(More)
More than 70% of Pelvetia fastigiata eggs and about 15% of Fucus distichus eggs become polyspermic when fertilized at natural sperm concentrations in a low-sodium (2.5 mM Na+, 450 mM N-methyl glucamine) artificial seawater. Natural levels of polyspermy are 1-3% for both species. Polyspermic eggs germinate and respond to photopolarization, but do not develop(More)
Global demand for macroalgal and microalgal foods is growing, and algae are increasingly being consumed for functional benefits beyond the traditional considerations of nutrition and health. There is substantial evidence for the health benefits of algal-derived food products, but there remain considerable challenges in quantifying these benefits, as well as(More)
Following fertilization, there are rapid changes in the appearance of the Fucus egg. Large electron-translucent vesicles (V1) accumulate fibrillar material, and following pronuclear fusion, they are largely electron-opaque. These vesicles (V1) are formed originally in unfertilized eggs by smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) after release of the eggs from the(More)
Fertilization potentials in Pelvetia fastigiata, Fucus vesiculosus, and Fucus ceranoides were studied to examine whether eggs of fucoid algae have an electrical block against polyspermy. The resting potential of eggs of all species was about -60 mV, depolarizing, respectively, to -24 +/- 5 mV (SD, n = 9) for 7.5 +/- 2.1 (n = 8) min, -26 +/- 5 (n = 9) mV for(More)