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The marine red alga Porphyra is an important marine crop, worth ∼US$1.3 billion per year. Cultivation research now includes farm ecology, breeding, strain conservation and new net-seeding technologies. The success of cultivation is due, in part, to the high stress tolerance of Porphyra. Many species of Porphyra lose 85-95% of their cellular water during the(More)
Mathematical and experimental simulations predict that external fertilization is unsuccessful in habitats characterized by high water motion. A key assumption of such predictions is that gametes are released in hydrodynamic regimes that quickly dilute gametes. We used fucoid seaweeds to examine whether marine organisms in intertidal and subtidal habitats(More)
The North Atlantic intertidal community provides a rich set of organismal and environmental material for the study of ecological genetics. Clearly defined environmental gradients exist at multiple spatial scales: there are broad latitudinal trends in temperature, meso-scale changes in salinity along estuaries, and smaller scale gradients in desiccation and(More)
Early invasions of the North American shore occurred mainly via deposition of ballast rock, which effectively transported pieces of the intertidal zone across the Atlantic. From 1773-1861, >880 European ships entered Pictou Harbor, Nova Scotia, as a result of emigration and trade from Europe. The rockweed Fucus serratus (1868) and the snail Littorina(More)
The daily settlement of eggs and zygotes of the monoecious brown alga Pelvetia compressa (J. Agardh) De Toni was measured on artificial substrata in areas inside and outside patches of adults in the high intertidal zone of central California. Settlement was generally 1-2 orders of magnitude higher under the adult canopy. This pattern seems to be due to the(More)
Post-establishment spread of invasive species is a major determinant of their impact, but the spatial pattern and temporal rhythm of secondary spread are often poorly known or understood. Here we examine the spread of the European rockweed Fucus serratus over 1,500 km of shoreline after its initial discovery in Pictou, Nova Scotia (Canada) in 1868. Building(More)
More than 70% of Pelvetia fastigiata eggs and about 15% of Fucus distichus eggs become polyspermic when fertilized at natural sperm concentrations in a low-sodium (2.5 mM Na+, 450 mM N-methyl glucamine) artificial seawater. Natural levels of polyspermy are 1-3% for both species. Polyspermic eggs germinate and respond to photopolarization, but do not develop(More)
Calcium-binding proteins and calmodulin-binding proteins were identified in gametes and zygotes of the marine brown algae Fucus vesiculosus, Fucus distichus, and Pelvetia fastigiata using gel (SDS-PAGE) overlay techniques. A calcium current appears to be important during cell polarization in fucoid zygotes (K.R. Robinson and L.F. Jaffe, 1975, Science 187,(More)
Porphyra is a macrophytic red alga of the Bangiales that is important ecologically and economically. We describe the genomes of three bacteria in the phylum Planctomycetes (designated P1, P2 and P3) that were isolated from blades of Porphyra umbilicalis (P.um.1). These three Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) belong to distinct genera; P2 belongs to the(More)
Macroalgae harbor microbial communities whose bacterial biodiversity remains largely uncharacterized. The goals of this study were 1) to examine the composition of the bacterial community associated with Porphyra umbilicalis Kützing from Schoodic Point, ME, 2) determine whether there are seasonal trends in species diversity but a core group of bacteria that(More)