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It has been suggested that primates utilize a compliant gait to help reduce peak locomotor stresses on their limbs (Schmitt [1994] J. Hum. Evol. 26:441-458; Schmitt [ 1998] Primate Locomotion, p. 175-200; Schmitt [ 1999] J. Zool. Lond. 248:149-160). However, the components of such a gait, i.e., increased step length, prolonged contact time, and substantial(More)
In this report we provide detailed data on the patterns and frequency of heel contact with terrestrial and arboreal supports in primates. These data can help resolve the question of whether African apes and humans are uniquely "plantigrade" (Gebo [1992] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 89:29-58; Gebo [1993a] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 91:382-385; Gebo [1993b](More)
The strain environment of the tibial midshaft of two female macaques was evaluated through in vivo bone strain experiments using three rosette gauges around the circumference of the bones. Strains were collected for a total of 123 walking and galloping steps as well as several climbing cycles. Principal strains and the angle of the maximum (tensile)(More)
Among the characteristics that are thought to set primate quadrupedal locomotion apart from that of nonprimate mammals are a more protracted limb posture and larger limb angular excursion. However, kinematic aspects of primate or nonprimate quadrupedal locomotion have been documented in only a handful of species, and more widely for the hind than the(More)
The holotype of Homo floresiensis, diminutive hominins with tiny brains living until 12,000 years ago on the island of Flores, is a partial skeleton (LB1) that includes a partial clavicle (LB1/5) and a nearly complete right humerus (LB1/50). Although the humerus appears fairly modern in most regards, it is remarkable in displaying only 110 degrees of(More)
In vivo bone strain experiments were performed on the ulnae of three female rhesus macaques to test how the bone deforms during locomotion. The null hypothesis was that, in an animal moving its limbs predominantly in sagittal planes, the ulna experiences anteroposterior bending. Three rosette strain gauges were attached around the circumference of the bone(More)
Whether the Late Pleistocene hominin fossils from Flores, Indonesia, represent a new species, Homo floresiensis, or pathological modern humans has been debated. Analysis of three wrist bones from the holotype specimen (LB1) shows that it retains wrist morphology that is primitive for the African ape-human clade. In contrast, Neandertals and modern humans(More)
The importance of arm-raising has been a major consideration in the functional interpretation of differences in shoulder morphology among species of nonhuman primates. Among the characters that have been associated with enhancement of the arm-raising mechanism in hominoid primates are the relative enlargement of cranial trapezius and caudal serratus(More)