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Explaining the origins of novel traits is central to evolutionary biology. Longstanding theory suggests that developmental plasticity, the ability of an individual to modify its development in response to environmental conditions, might facilitate the evolution of novel traits. Yet whether and how such developmental flexibility promotes innovations that(More)
BACKGROUND Identification of new ways to increase access to antiretroviral therapy in Africa is an urgent priority. We assessed whether home-based HIV care was as effective as was facility-based care. METHODS We undertook a cluster-randomised equivalence trial in Jinja, Uganda. 44 geographical areas in nine strata, defined according to ratio of urban and(More)
Natural populations often experience the weakening or removal of a source of selection that had been important in the maintenance of one or more traits. Here we refer to these situations as 'relaxed selection,' and review recent studies that explore the effects of such changes on traits in their ecological contexts. In a few systems, such as the loss of(More)
If an ancestral stem group repeatedly colonizes similar environments, developmental plasticity specific to that group should consistently give rise to similar phenotypes. Parallel selection on those similar phenotypes could lead to the repeated evolution of characteristic ecotypes, a property common to many adaptive radiations. A key prediction of this(More)
The importance of ERP (enterprise resource planning) systems as a major system for organisational change and transformation has been one of the main reasons they have created such excitement within the educational arena. This paper examines the use of an ERP simulation game to prepare university graduates to meet the challenge of a global supply chain(More)
Neo-darwinists have long argued that parallel evolution, the repeated evolution of similar phenotypes in closely related lineages, is caused by the action of similar environments on alleles at many loci of small effect. A more controversial possibility is that the genetic architecture of traits initiates parallelism, sometimes through fixation of alleles of(More)
In Study 1, young drivers (aged between 16 and 29 years, N = 314) rated their driving attributes relative to their peers. They also rated their likelihood of being involved in a crash relative to their peers (crash-risk optimism), their crash history, stereotype of the young driver, and concern over another health issue. A self-enhancement bias was found(More)
Experimental evidence supporting convergent character displacement is rare; only one example exists and it is in the form of orientation and territory competition experiments performed in the laboratory. However, outcomes of laboratory experiments involving behaviour or competition can be artefacts of unnatural conditions and, therefore, the results of the(More)