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OBJECTIVE Prior studies have shown improved neurocognition with initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in HIV. We hypothesized that stopping ART would be associated with poorer neurocognitive function. METHODS Neurocognitive function was assessed as part of ACTG 5170, a multicenter, prospective observational study of HIV-infected subjects who(More)
Despite widespread application of ultrasound imaging and Doppler blood flow studies, the effects of their frequent and repeated use in pregnancy have not been evaluated in controlled trials. From 2834 women with single pregnancies at 16-20 weeks gestation, 1415 were selected at random to receive ultrasound imaging and continuous-wave Doppler flow studies at(More)
Glucocorticoids regulate oligodendrocyte maturation and the myelin biosynthetic pathways. Synthetic glucocorticoids, the corticosteroids have been successfully used in clinical practice as a single course to enhance lung maturation and reduce mortality and morbidity in preterm infants with no long-term neurologic or cognitive side effects. However, a trend(More)
OBJECTIVE We conducted a study of minocycline to assess its safety, tolerability, and efficacy for the treatment of HIV-associated cognitive impairment. METHODS HIV-1-infected individuals with progressive neurocognitive decline were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of minocycline. Participants were randomized to receive minocycline 100(More)
We ascertained two families in Eastern Canada segregating a form of ataxia consistent with a recessive mode of inheritance. We performed a whole genome scan using dense SNP genotyping, and despite an absence of shared homozygosity in the families we defined linkage to a small region on chromosome 13. Direct DNA resequencing was employed to screen(More)
Glucocorticoids are powerful regulators of cell differentiation and maturation. Their synthetic counterparts, the corticosteroids, are used widely in obstetric practice to enhance fetal lung maturation in cases of threatened preterm birth. Here we examined the effects of repeated corticosteroid administration on astrocyte and capillary tight junction(More)
The objective of this study was to evaluate and characterise by study of newborn biometry a possible effect on birthweight which we observed previously in a randomised controlled trial of multiple prenatal ultrasound examinations. A total of 2743 women with single pregnancies had been allocated at random to either a protocol of ultrasound imaging and(More)
BACKGROUND AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5199 compared the neurological and neuropsychological (NP) effects of 3 antiretroviral regimens in participants infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in resource-limited settings. METHODS Participants from Brazil, India, Malawi, Peru, South Africa, Thailand, and Zimbabwe were randomized to(More)
Statistical models of the relationship between the distribution of each of five foetal dimensions and gestational age are developed based on serial ultrasound biometric data from a prospective longitudinal study in Perth, Western Australia. Both the response variable and the gestational age timescale are transformed to establish an approximately linear(More)
BACKGROUND Switching a thymidine analogue to a non-thymidine analogue or changing to a nucleoside-sparing regimen has been shown to partially reverse peripheral lipoatrophy. The current study evaluated both approaches. METHODS Subjects at 15 AIDS Clinical Trial Group sites receiving thymidine analogue stavudine- or zidovudine-containing regimens with(More)