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The reference human genome sequence set the stage for studies of genetic variation and its association with human disease, but epigenomic studies lack a similar reference. To address this need, the NIH Roadmap Epigenomics Consortium generated the largest collection so far of human epigenomes for primary cells and tissues. Here we describe the integrative(More)
FAK is known as an integrin- and growth factor-associated tyrosine kinase promoting cell motility. Here we show that, during mouse development, FAK inactivation results in p53- and p21-dependent mesodermal cell growth arrest. Reconstitution of primary FAK-/-p21-/- fibroblasts revealed that FAK, in a kinase-independent manner, facilitates p53 turnover via(More)
The alpha chain of the human histocompatibility antigen HLA-G was identified as an array of five 37- to 39-kilodalton isoforms by the use of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Both cell-associated and secreted HLA-G antigens are prominent in first trimester villous cytotrophoblasts and are greatly reduced in third trimester cytotrophoblasts. Allelic(More)
Preterm birth is associated with 5 to 18% of pregnancies and is a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Spontaneous preterm labor, a syndrome caused by multiple pathologic processes, leads to 70% of preterm births. The prevention and the treatment of preterm labor have been long-standing challenges. We summarize the current understanding of the(More)
This work focuses on the simulation of mechanical contact between nonlinearly elastic objects such as the components of the human body. The computation of the reaction forces that actonthecontactsurfaces(contact forces) is the key for designing a reliable contact handling algorithm. In traditional methods, contact forces are often defined as discontinuous(More)
HLA-G is the only class I determinant of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expressed by the trophoblasts, the fetal cells invading the maternal decidua during pregnancy. A unique feature of this nonclassical HLA molecule is its low polymorphism, a property that has been postulated to play an important role in preventing local activation of maternal(More)
Already in 2006 the group of Irina Klimanskaya / Robert Lanza had published a controversially discussed paper on the generation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) from cells that had been obtained by blastomere biopsy. Title and abstract of that paper suggested that removal of one or only few cells from an embryo could be sufficient, and that the(More)
Trophoblast adhesion to the uterine wall is the requisite first step of implantation and, subsequently, placentation. At the maternal-fetal interface, we investigated the expression of selectin adhesion systems that enable leukocyte capture from the bloodstream. On the maternal side, human uterine epithelial cells up-regulated selectin oligosaccharide-based(More)
The placenta is a remarkable organ. In normal pregnancy its specialized cells (termed cytotrophoblasts) differentiate into various specialized subpopulations that play pivotal roles in governing fetal growth and development. One cytotrophoblast subset acquires tumor-like properties that allow the cells to invade the decidua and myometrium, a process that(More)
The mammalian embryo cannot develop without the placenta. Its specialized cells (trophoblast, endoderm, and extraembryonic mesoderm) form early in development. They attach the embryo to the uterus (implantation) and form vascular connections necessary for nutrient transport. In addition, the placenta redirects maternal endocrine, immune, and metabolic(More)