Susan E. Goelz

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BACKGROUND Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is associated with natalizumab treatment. We quantified the risk of PML in patients with multiple sclerosis, according to the presence or absence of three risk factors: positive status with respect to anti-JC virus antibodies, prior use of immunosuppressants, and increasing duration of natalizumab(More)
Inflammation and oxidative stress are thought to promote tissue damage in multiple sclerosis. Thus, novel therapeutics enhancing cellular resistance to free radicals could prove useful for multiple sclerosis treatment. BG00012 is an oral formulation of dimethylfumarate. In a phase II multiple sclerosis trial, BG00012 demonstrated beneficial effects on(More)
OBJECTIVE A study was undertaken to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect JC virus (JCV)-specific antibodies in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and to evaluate its potential utility for identifying patients at higher or lower risk (ie, risk stratification) of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in natalizumab-treated MS patients is linked to JC virus (JCV) infection. JCV sequence variation and rearrangements influence viral pathogenicity and tropism. To better understand PML development, we analyzed viral DNA sequences in blood, CSF and/or urine of natalizumab-treated PML patients. (More)
The ability to isolate DNA from preserved human tissues would provide numerous experimental opportunities. In this report it is shown that DNA can be extracted from tissues prepared for routine histopathological examination (i.e., fixed with formaldehyde and embedded in paraffin). Although the extracted DNA is not intact, it is double stranded, cleavable(More)
Fumaric acid esters (FAE) have proven their therapeutic efficacy in psoriasis, a Th1 mediated skin disease. More recently, preliminary data have suggested an activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) as well. To investigate further possible mechanisms of action of these compounds in inflammatory diseases, we studied the FAE methyl hydrogen fumarate (MHF) and(More)
The methylation state of DNA from human colon tissue displaying neoplastic growth was determined by means of restriction endonuclease analysis. When compared to DNA from adjacent normal tissue, DNA from both benign colon polyps and malignant carcinomas was substantially hypomethylated. With the use of probes for growth hormone, gamma-globin, alpha-chorionic(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence and clinical significance of neutralizing antibody (NAb) formation in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) who participated in the European Interferon Beta-1a IM Dose-Comparison Study. METHODS Patients were randomized to treatment with interferon beta-1a (IFNbeta-1a) 30 microg or 60 microg IM once weekly for(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the rate of seropositivity of anti-JC virus (JCV) antibodies in a German multiple sclerosis (MS) cohort treated with natalizumab in the postmarketing setting and to assess anti-JCV serostatus in samples obtained before diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). METHODS This was a blinded, retrospective(More)
n engl j med 361;25 nejm.org december 17, 2009 2487 nificant, but the clinical meaning would not be obvious. We disagree that hazard ratios can be misleading for clinicians if such ratios are interpreted properly as an average effect across the entire study period and population.1 Medians and rates can be more misleading, since these measures are a(More)