Susan E. Critchlow

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The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase forms two multiprotein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, which regulate cell growth, cell survival, and autophagy. Allosteric inhibitors of mTORC1, such as rapamycin, have been extensively used to study tumor cell growth, proliferation, and autophagy but have shown only limited clinical utility. Here, we describe(More)
BACKGROUND Mammalian cells deficient in the XRCC4 DNA repair protein are impaired in DNA double-strand break repair and are consequently hypersensitive to ionising radiation. These cells are also defective in site-specific V(D)J recombination, a process that generates the diversity of antigen receptor genes in the developing immune system. These features(More)
DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is a crucial process that has been conserved highly throughout eukaryotic evolution. At its heart is a multiprotein complex containing the KU70-KU80 heterodimer. Recent work has identified additional proteins involved in this pathway, providing insights into the mechanism of NHEJ and revealing exciting links with the(More)
A complex of two proteins, Xrcc4 and DNA ligase IV, plays a fundamental role in DNA non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), a cellular function required for double-strand break repair and V(D)J recombination. Here we report the crystal structure of human Xrcc4 bound to a polypeptide that corresponds to the DNA ligase IV sequence linking its two BRCA1 C-terminal(More)
The major mechanism for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mammalian cells is non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), a process that involves the DNA-dependent protein kinase [1] [2], XRCC4 and DNA ligase IV [3] [4] [5] [6]. Rodent cells and mice defective in these components are radiation-sensitive and defective in V(D)J-recombination, showing(More)
Malignant tumors exhibit increased dependence on glycolysis, resulting in abundant export of lactic acid, a hypothesized key step in tumorigenesis. Lactic acid is mainly transported by two H(+)/lactate symporters, MCT1/MCT4, that require the ancillary protein CD147/Basigin for their functionality. First, we showed that blocking MCT1/2 in Ras-transformed(More)
Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate, utilizing NADH as a cofactor. It has been identified as a potential therapeutic target in the area of cancer metabolism. In this manuscript we report our progress using fragment-based lead generation (FBLG), assisted by X-ray crystallography to develop small molecule LDHA(More)
PURPOSE The monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) inhibitor, AZD3965, is undergoing phase I evaluation in the United Kingdom. AZD3965 is proposed, via lactate transport modulation, to kill tumor cells reliant on glycolysis. We investigated the therapeutic potential of AZD3965 in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) seeking rationale for clinical testing in this(More)
The effects of DNA gyrase and quinolone drugs on in vitro transcription of a template containing a preferred gyrase cleavage site have been investigated. We have found that gyrase-quinolone complexes with DNA lead to blocking of transcription by Escherichia coli and bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerases. Either gyrase or quinolone alone has no effect on(More)
BACKGROUND Enhanced macromolecule biosynthesis is integral to growth and proliferation of cancer cells. Lipid biosynthesis has been predicted to be an essential process in cancer cells. However, it is unclear which enzymes within this pathway offer the best selectivity for cancer cells and could be suitable therapeutic targets. RESULTS Using functional(More)