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BACKGROUND Mammalian cells deficient in the XRCC4 DNA repair protein are impaired in DNA double-strand break repair and are consequently hypersensitive to ionising radiation. These cells are also defective in site-specific V(D)J recombination, a process that generates the diversity of antigen receptor genes in the developing immune system. These features(More)
A complex of two proteins, Xrcc4 and DNA ligase IV, plays a fundamental role in DNA non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), a cellular function required for double-strand break repair and V(D)J recombination. Here we report the crystal structure of human Xrcc4 bound to a polypeptide that corresponds to the DNA ligase IV sequence linking its two BRCA1 C-terminal(More)
AIM To document the behavioural and psychological symptoms in patients with a diagnosis of established Alzheimer's disease (AD) for at least 3 years. METHODS Patients with a > or =3 year history of AD (NINCDS/ADRDA) were recruited from old age psychiatrist and elderly care memory clinics. Information regarding duration of symptoms and non-cognitive(More)
DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is a crucial process that has been conserved highly throughout eukaryotic evolution. At its heart is a multiprotein complex containing the KU70-KU80 heterodimer. Recent work has identified additional proteins involved in this pathway, providing insights into the mechanism of NHEJ and revealing exciting links with the(More)
We have studied the interaction of the F plasmid killer protein CcdB with its intracellular target DNA gyrase. We confirm that CcdB can induce DNA cleavage by gyrase and show that this cleavage reaction requires ATP hydrolysis when the substrate is linear DNA, but is independent of hydrolysis when negatively supercoiled DNA is used. The 64 kDa domain of the(More)
PURPOSE The monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) inhibitor, AZD3965, is undergoing phase I evaluation in the United Kingdom. AZD3965 is proposed, via lactate transport modulation, to kill tumor cells reliant on glycolysis. We investigated the therapeutic potential of AZD3965 in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) seeking rationale for clinical testing in this(More)
The major mechanism for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mammalian cells is non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), a process that involves the DNA-dependent protein kinase [1] [2], XRCC4 and DNA ligase IV [3] [4] [5] [6]. Rodent cells and mice defective in these components are radiation-sensitive and defective in V(D)J-recombination, showing(More)
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase forms two multiprotein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, which regulate cell growth, cell survival, and autophagy. Allosteric inhibitors of mTORC1, such as rapamycin, have been extensively used to study tumor cell growth, proliferation, and autophagy but have shown only limited clinical utility. Here, we describe(More)
Malignant tumors exhibit increased dependence on glycolysis, resulting in abundant export of lactic acid, a hypothesized key step in tumorigenesis. Lactic acid is mainly transported by two H(+)/lactate symporters, MCT1/MCT4, that require the ancillary protein CD147/Basigin for their functionality. First, we showed that blocking MCT1/2 in Ras-transformed(More)