Learn More
The ligand-binding head region of integrin beta subunits contains a von Willebrand factor type A domain (betaA). Ligand binding activity is regulated through conformational changes in betaA, and ligand recognition also causes conformational changes that are transduced from this domain. The molecular basis of signal transduction to and from betaA is(More)
The structural basis of the interaction of integrin heterodimers with their physiological ligands is poorly understood. We have used solution x-ray scattering to visualize the head region of integrin alpha 5 beta 1 in an inactive (Ca2+-occupied) state, and in complex with a fragment of fibronectin containing the RGD and synergy recognition sequences. Shape(More)
Integrin-ligand interactions are regulated in a complex manner by divalent cations, and multiple cation-binding sites are found in both alpha and beta integrin subunits. A key cation-binding site that lies in the beta subunit A-domain is known as the metal-ion dependent adhesion site (MIDAS). Recent x-ray crystal structures of integrin alpha V beta 3 have(More)
Integrin adhesion receptors are structurally dynamic proteins that adopt a number of functionally relevant conformations. We have produced a conformation-dependent anti-alpha5 monoclonal antibody (SNAKA51) that converts alpha5beta1 integrin into a ligand-competent form and promotes fibronectin binding. In adherent fibroblasts, SNAKA51 preferentially bound(More)
Intercellular adhesion mediated by integrin alpha4beta1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) plays a crucial role in both the rolling and firm attachment of leukocytes onto the vascular endothelium. Essential to the alpha4beta1/VCAM-1 interaction is its mechanical strength that allows the complex to resist the large shear forces imposed by the(More)
The ligand-binding region of integrin beta subunits contains a von Willebrand factor type A-domain: an alpha/beta "Rossmann" fold containing a metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) on its top face. Although there is evidence to suggest that the betaA-domain undergoes changes in tertiary structure during receptor activation, the identity of the secondary(More)
Integrins are dynamic membrane proteins that mediate adhesion of cells to the extracellular matrix. Integrins initiate signal transduction, alone and cooperatively with growth factor receptors, and regulate many aspects of cell behavior. We report here that alpha5beta1-mediated adhesion of Ntera2 neuronal cells to fibronectin decreased apoptosis in response(More)
The stem cell inhibitor, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) or LD78, protects multipotent hematopoietic progenitors in murine models from the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy. Clinical use of human MIP-1 alpha during chemotherapy could therefore lead to faster hematologic recovery and may allow dose intensification. We have also shown(More)
The human LD78 protein (sometimes referred to as human macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha) has been shown to protect multipotential hemopoietic stem cells from the effects of cytotoxic agents. Administration of the recombinant stem cell inhibitor molecule LD78 as an adjunct to chemotherapy has potential clinical benefit in reducing or preventing the(More)
The murine macrophage inflammatory proteins-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) and MIP-1 beta are distinct but closely related cytokines. Partially purified mixtures of the two proteins affect neutrophil function and cause local inflammation and fever. The particular properties of MIP-1 alpha have not been well studied, although it has been identified as being identical(More)