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Previous studies have suggested that antiestrogens inhibit MCF-7 cell proliferation by alteringthe expression or activity of components of the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) signaling pathway, including IGF-I receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. In this report, we examine the effects of the pure antiestrogen ICI(More)
We have studied the regulation of thymidine kinase mRNA and protein/enzyme expression in quiescent and serum-stimulated rat cells transfected with a human TK cDNA clone expressed from a number of promoters. Our results indicate that while the pattern of mRNA expression is a function of the promoter used, the pattern of protein/enzyme expression is not. When(More)
Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)5a is a well-established regulator of mammary gland development. Several pathways for activating Stat5a have been identified, but little is known about the mechanisms that regulate its expression in this tissue. In this report, we used immunofluorescent staining to examine Stat5a expression in mammary(More)
Estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women is associated with a reduced risk of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The multiple mechanisms by which estrogen protects against AD are still unknown. To conduct a broad screen for estrogen-regulated AD-related genes in the brain, we used cDNA array assays of brain mRNA samples from ovariectomized (ovx) adult(More)
Estrogen rapidly induces expression of the proto-oncogene c-myc. c-Myc is required for estrogen-stimulated proliferation of breast cancer cells, and deregulated c-Myc expression has been implicated in antiestrogen resistance. In this report, we investigate the mechanism(s) by which c-Myc mediates estrogen-stimulated proliferation and contributes to cell(More)
We have studied the cell cycle-regulated expression of the thymidine kinase (TK) gene in mammalian tissue culture cells. TK mRNA and enzyme levels are low in resting, G0-phase cells, but increase dramatically (10- to 20-fold) during the S phase in both serum-stimulated and simian virus 40-infected cells. To determine whether an increase in the rate of TK(More)
The MCF-7 cell line is a model of estrogen-dependent, antiestrogen-sensitive human breast cancer. Antiestrogen treatment of MCF-7 cells causes dramatic decreases in both Cdk4 and Cdk2 activities, which leads to a G(1) phase cell cycle arrest. In this report, we investigate the mechanism(s) by which Cdk4 activity is regulated in MCF-7 cells. Through time(More)
The thymidine kinase (TK) gene has been isolated from human genomic DNA. The gene was passaged twice by transfection of LTK- cells with human chromosomal DNA, and genomic libraries were made in lambda Charon 30 from a second-round TK+ transformant. When the library was screened with a human Alu probe, seven overlapping lambda clones from the human TK locus(More)
We have identified a regulatory region in the human thymidine kinase gene promoter. A set of promoter deletion mutants was constructed, linked to the bacterial neomycin resistance gene, and stably transfected into Rat3 cells. It was shown that the region between 135 and 67 base pairs upstream of the cap site is required for conveying G1-S-phase regulation(More)
Estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors represent the most common type of breast cancer, and ER-targeted therapies such as antiestrogens and aromatase inhibitors have therefore been widely used in breast cancer treatment. While many patients have benefited from these therapies, both innate and acquired resistance continue to be causes of treatment failure.(More)