Susan E. Conrad

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Estrogens are required for the proliferation of hormone dependent breast cancer cells, making estrogen receptor (ER) positive tumors amenable to endocrine therapies such as antiestrogens. However, resistance to these agents remains a significant cause of treatment failure. We previously demonstrated that inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb)(More)
Progesterone, through the progesterone receptor (PR), promotes development of the normal mammary gland and is implicated in the etiology of breast cancer. We identified PRA-regulated genes by microarray analysis of cultured epithelial organoids derived from pubertal and adult mouse mammary glands, developmental stages with differing progesterone(More)
Estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors represent the most common type of breast cancer, and ER-targeted therapies such as antiestrogens and aromatase inhibitors have therefore been widely used in breast cancer treatment. While many patients have benefited from these therapies, both innate and acquired resistance continue to be causes of treatment failure.(More)
A 311-base pair fragment containing the SV40 origin of replication was linked to the chicken thymidine kinase gene on a recombinant plasmid. This molecule was transfected into human 143 thymidine kinase-deficient (TK-) cells, and colonies positive for thymidine kinase were selected. When cell lines derived from these colonies were fused to permissive simian(More)
MEK Partner 1 (MP1 or MAPKSP1) is a scaffold protein that has been reported to function in multiple signaling pathways, including the ERK, PAK and mTORC pathways. Several of these pathways influence the biology of breast cancer, but MP1’s functional significance in breast cancer cells has not been investigated. In this report, we demonstrate a requirement(More)
Mixed-lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase kinase that activates MAPK pathways, including the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 pathways. MLK3 and its family members have been implicated in JNK-mediated apoptosis. A survey of human cell lines revealed high levels of MLK3 in breast cancer cells. To learn more(More)
Infection of quiescent cells with the DNA tumor virus simian virus 40 induces expression of the cellular thymidine kinase (TK) gene a minimum of 10- to 20-fold, and this induction depends upon the viral protein large T antigen (T-Ag). To define both human TK promoter elements and T-Ag functional domains required for transcriptional induction, we have(More)
An in vitro replication system has been used to study the control of DNA replication of the relaxed plasmids Col E1 and RSF1030. An RNA transcript approximately 100 nucleotides long is synthesized during the in vitro DNA replication reaction. This RNA is synthesized approximately 450 bp away from the origin of replication. A small insertion in the coding(More)