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BACKGROUND  Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (Truvada) has demonstrated efficacy in placebo-controlled clinical trials involving men who have sex with men, high-risk heterosexuals, serodiscordant couples, and intravenous drug users. To assist in the real-world provision of PrEP, the Centers for Disease(More)
Bloodstream infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Physician orders for blood cultures often specify that blood specimens be collected at or around the time of a temperature elevation, presumably as a means of enhancing the likelihood of detecting significant bacteremia. In a multicenter study, which utilized retrospective patient(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence and characteristics of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) in hospitals across the United States and to describe financial support provided for these programs. DESIGN Electronic and paper 14-question survey of infectious diseases physician members of the Infectious Diseases Society of America Emerging Infections(More)
BACKGROUND US Public Health Service guidelines recommend early initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV)-infected patients and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as a prevention option for persons at risk for HIV acquisition. Before issuance of these guidelines, few clinicians reported prescribing early ART or(More)
BACKGROUND Health care workers (HCWs) do not consistently follow Standard Precautions (SP). This is a serious problem because inadequate compliance is associated with increased blood exposure thus predisposing HCWs to bloodborne pathogen transmission. METHODS The primary goal of this study was to identify institutional factors associated with adequacy of(More)
The objective of the case-control study presented here was to examine the risk factors for macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. As part of a 44-center U.S. surveillance study, 1,817 unique isolates of S. pneumoniae were collected from November 2002 through April 2003. Seventy-five randomly selected macrolide-resistant isolates (cases) were each(More)
During the 12-year period from 1993 to 2004, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 74,394 gram-negative bacillus isolates recovered from intensive care unit (ICU) patients in United States hospitals were determined by participating hospitals and collected in a central location. MICs for 12 different agents were determined using a standardized broth(More)
Current automated continuous-monitoring blood culture systems afford more rapid detection of bacteremia and fungemia than is possible with non-instrument-based manual methods. Use of these systems has not been studied objectively with respect to impact on patient outcomes, including hospital charges and length of hospitalization. We conducted a prospective,(More)
To examine factors associated with blood exposure and percutaneous injury among health care workers, we assessed occupational risk factors, compliance with standard precautions, frequency of exposure, and reporting in a stratified random sample of 5123 physicians, nurses, and medical technologists working in Iowa community hospitals. Of these, 3223 (63%)(More)
We performed a prospective study of bloodstream infection to determine factors independently associated with mortality. Between February 1999 and July 2000, 929 consecutive episodes of bloodstream infection at two tertiary care centers were studied. An ICD-9-based Charlson Index was used to adjust for underlying illness. Crude mortality was 24% (14% for(More)