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BACKGROUND  Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (Truvada) has demonstrated efficacy in placebo-controlled clinical trials involving men who have sex with men, high-risk heterosexuals, serodiscordant couples, and intravenous drug users. To assist in the real-world provision of PrEP, the Centers for Disease(More)
During the 12-year period from 1993 to 2004, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 74,394 gram-negative bacillus isolates recovered from intensive care unit (ICU) patients in United States hospitals were determined by participating hospitals and collected in a central location. MICs for 12 different agents were determined using a standardized broth(More)
Although the genesis of healthcare worker anxiety regarding occupational risks of HIV-1 infection is clear, the reasons for continued insistence on a meticulous "casualty count" become less clear with time. One could, in fact, argue that the precise number of such infections has become virtually meaningless, because the routes of occupational/nosocomial(More)
BACKGROUND Increased levels of macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes in focal regions of the United States have been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of a large collection of S. pyogenes isolates from throughout the United States and to elucidate the mechanisms of resistance and genetic relatedness(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence and characteristics of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) in hospitals across the United States and to describe financial support provided for these programs. DESIGN Electronic and paper 14-question survey of infectious diseases physician members of the Infectious Diseases Society of America Emerging Infections(More)
There are currently no clear consensus recommendations for the treatment and prevention of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infections in pediatric patients. We surveyed over 100 Pediatric Infectious Diseases consultants and found considerable variability in both the treatment of skin and soft tissue(More)
Bloodstream infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Physician orders for blood cultures often specify that blood specimens be collected at or around the time of a temperature elevation, presumably as a means of enhancing the likelihood of detecting significant bacteremia. In a multicenter study, which utilized retrospective patient(More)
BACKGROUND US Public Health Service guidelines recommend early initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV)-infected patients and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as a prevention option for persons at risk for HIV acquisition. Before issuance of these guidelines, few clinicians reported prescribing early ART or(More)
BACKGROUND Health care workers (HCWs) do not consistently follow Standard Precautions (SP). This is a serious problem because inadequate compliance is associated with increased blood exposure thus predisposing HCWs to bloodborne pathogen transmission. METHODS The primary goal of this study was to identify institutional factors associated with adequacy of(More)
The objective of the case-control study presented here was to examine the risk factors for macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. As part of a 44-center U.S. surveillance study, 1,817 unique isolates of S. pneumoniae were collected from November 2002 through April 2003. Seventy-five randomly selected macrolide-resistant isolates (cases) were each(More)