Susan E Bates

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Chemotherapeutics are the most effective treatment for metastatic tumours. However, the ability of cancer cells to become simultaneously resistant to different drugs--a trait known as multidrug resistance--remains a significant impediment to successful chemotherapy. Three decades of multidrug-resistance research have identified a myriad of ways in which(More)
The two distinct proteins encoded by the CDKN2A locus are specified by translating the common second exon in alternative reading frames. The product of the alpha transcript, p16(INK4a), is a recognized tumour suppressor that induces a G1 cell cycle arrest by inhibiting the phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein by the cyclin-dependent kinases, CDK4(More)
Allelic loss at the short arm of chromosome 3 is one of the most common and earliest events in the pathogenesis of lung cancer, and is observed in more than 90% of small-cell lung cancers (SCLCs) and in 50-80% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Frequent and early loss of heterozygosity and the presence of homozygous deletions suggested a critical role(More)
Recent studies have shown that mutations at amino-acid 482 in the ABCG2 gene affect the substrate specificity of the protein. To delineate the effects of these mutations clearly, human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293) were stably transfected with wild-type 482R or mutant 482G and 482T ABCG2. By flow cytometry, mitoxantrone, BODIPY-prazosin, and Hoechst(More)
Drug resistance remains one of the primary causes of suboptimal outcomes in cancer therapy. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a family of transporter proteins that contribute to drug resistance via ATP-dependent drug efflux pumps. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded by the MDR1 gene, is an ABC transporter normally involved in the excretion of toxins(More)
The ATP binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of membrane transporters is one of the largest protein classes known, and counts numerous proteins involved in the trafficking of biological molecules across cell membranes. The first known human ABC transporter was P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which confers multidrug resistance (MDR) to anticancer drugs. In recent(More)
ABCG2 is a plasma membrane efflux pump that is able to confer resistance to several anticancer agents, including mitoxantrone, camptothecins, anthracyclines, and flavopiridol. The antimetabolite methotrexate (MTX) was inferred recently to be an additional substrate of the pump based on the analysis of ABCG2-overexpressing cell lines. However, the transport(More)
Mechanisms of drug resistance other than P-glycoprotein are of increasing interest as the list of newly identified members of the ABC transport family has grown. We sought to characterize the phenotype of the newly discovered ABC transporter encoded by the mitoxantrone resistance gene, MXR, also known as ABCP1 or BCRP. The pharmacodynamics of mitoxantrone(More)
A disparity was noted in the transport of rhodamine 123 among nine MXR/BCRP/ABCP-overexpressing cells studied; all demonstrated mitoxantrone transport, whereas only two effluxed rhodamine 123. When the MXR/BCRP/ABCP gene was sequenced in the cell lines studied, differences were noted at amino acid 482, predicted to be at the start of the third transmembrane(More)
Reports of multiple distinct mitoxantrone-resistant sublines without overexpression of P-glycoprotein or the multidrug-resistance associated protein have raised the possibility of the existence of another major transporter conferring drug resistance. In the present study, a cDNA library from mitoxantrone-resistant S1-M1-80 human colon carcinoma cells was(More)