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Two rat experiments shed light on how variation in behavior is regulated. Experiment 1 used the peak procedure. On most trials, the 1st bar press more than 40 s after signal onset ended the signal and produced food. Other trials lasted much longer and ended without food. On those trials, the variability of bar-press duration increased greatly after the 1st(More)
Once used only as third-line therapy for chronic pain management, methadone is now being used as first- and second-line therapy in palliative care. The risks and stigma associated with methadone use are known, but difficulties with dosing methadone and lack of an established conversion protocol from other opiates have limited the access for patient(More)
The purpose of this quasi-experimental (pre and posttest) study was to test a model pain management program (PMP) to implement the American Pain Society (APS) quality assurance standards for the management of acute and chronic cancer pain using a continuous quality improvement (CQI) approach to improve professionals' knowledge and skills, patient(More)
Preclinical data showed that the cytotoxic effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) are augmented by interferon (IFN). In a small study, 13 of 17 patients with advanced colorectal cancer responded to a regimen of 5-FU with IFN. Using the same dose and schedule as in this pilot study, 38 previously untreated patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma were treated(More)
The successful use of methadone in cancer pain has been supported by numerous case reports and clinical studies. Methadone is usually used as a second or third line opioid medication. As the use of methadone increases we are facing the challenge of converting methadone to other opioids as part of sequential opioid trials. Data on the equianalgesic ratios(More)
Recognizing delirium and its impact on older patients and their caregivers is an important aspect of oncology nursing. Delirium is the most common complication of hospital admissions for older adults and is associated with a significant amount of morbidity and mortality, prolonged hospital stays, functional decline, and decreased quality of life. Oncology(More)
This paper explores the existence and effects of ageism on cancer care of the elderly. Cancer-related care for the elderly patient has not been given appropriate attention. Many of our present attitudes are based on how history has treated the elderly. Screening programs often neglect individuals over 65 despite the increased prevalence of cancers in this(More)
Based on an animal model to improve the antitumor activity of 5-fluorouracil (FUra), a Phase I study of N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate, methotrexate, FUra, and leucovorin was conducted on 44 patients. Methotrexate was given in an intermediate dose (250 mg/m2) to overcome potential drug resistance, and N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate was given at a low dose(More)
Based on an animal model to improve the antitumor activity of 5-fluorouracil (FUra), a Phase I study of A/-(phosphonacetyl)-i .-aspartate, methotrexate, FUra, and leucovorin was conducted on 44 patients. Meth otrexate was given in an intermediate dose (250 mg/nr) to overcome potential drug resistance, and ¿V-(phosphnnacetyl)-i.-aspartatewas given at a low(More)