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PURPOSE To present a normative volumetric database, spanning 5 decades of life, of cerebrospinal fluid, subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid, total brain volume, total ventricular volume (component ventricular volumes of lateral, temporal horn, and third and fourth ventricles) and estimates of white and gray matter, based on a multispectral segmentation of(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe a new, rigorous, comprehensive practice-based evidence for clinical practice improvement (PBE-CPI) study methodology, and compare its features, advantages, and disadvantages to those of randomized controlled trials and sophisticated statistical methods for comparative effectiveness research. RESEARCH DESIGN PBE-CPI incorporates(More)
BACKGROUND Randomized, controlled trials have shown that prophylactic antibiotics are effective in preventing surgical-wound infections. However, it is uncertain how the timing of antibiotic administration affects the risk of surgical-wound infection in actual clinical practice. METHODS We prospectively monitored the timing of antibiotic prophylaxis and(More)
OBJECTIVE A clear link has been demonstrated between lower nurse staffing levels in hospitals and adverse patient outcomes, but the results of studies of such relationships in long-term care facilities haven't been as clear. This study explored the time nurses spent in direct care and how it affected outcomes in long-stay (two weeks or longer) nursing home(More)
OBJECTIVES To identify resident, treatment, and facility characteristics associated with pressure ulcer (PU) development in long-term care residents. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study with convenience sampling. SETTING Ninety-five long-term care facilities participating in the National Pressure Ulcer Long-Term Care Study throughout the United States. (More)
OBJECTIVE To prospectively monitor occupational therapy activities and intervention techniques used during inpatient stroke rehabilitation in order to provide a description of current clinical practice. METHODS Data were collected prospectively from 954 clients with stroke receiving occupational therapy from six U.S. rehabilitation hospitals. Descriptive(More)
UNLABELLED Horn SD, DeJong G, Smout RJ, Gassaway J, James R, Conroy B. Stroke rehabilitation patients, practice, and outcomes: is earlier and more aggressive therapy better? OBJECTIVE To examine associations of patient characteristics, rehabilitation therapies, neurotropic medications, nutritional support, and timing of initiation of rehabilitation with(More)
UNLABELLED This document reports the consensus of an interdisciplinary panel of research and clinical experts charged with reviewing the use of opioids for chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) and formulating guidelines for future research. Prescribing opioids for chronic noncancer pain has recently escalated in the United States. Contrasting with increasing(More)
To provide empirical evidence comparing pressure ulcer healing rates between different support surfaces, data were analyzed from eligible residents with pressure ulcers (N = 664) enrolled in the National Pressure Ulcer Long-Term Care Study, a retrospective pressure ulcer prevention and treatment study. Support surfaces were categorized as: Group 1 (static(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to describe physical therapy provided to patients with stroke in inpatient rehabilitation facilities. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Data were collected from 972 patients with stroke receiving physical therapy services at 6 rehabilitation facilities in the United States. Descriptive statistics were derived to(More)