Susan D Chandler

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Injection of GABA into the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) activates medullary neurons that are involved in pain inhibition and potentiates morphine-induced analgesia. These observations suggest that GABAergic mechanisms in the PAG may modulate the descending pain inhibitory system that arises from this structure. In the present study, the effects of(More)
Intracellular and extracellular recording techniques and in vitro preparation were used to examine the effect of [Met]enkephalin on the rat periaqueductal neurons. In the 20 cells that were recorded intracellularly, [Met]enkephalin caused an increase in the resting membrane conductance, hyperpolarization of the cell membrane, an increase in the firing(More)
We electrophysiologically examined the connection between the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) and the periaqueductal gray (PAG) and examined the role of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) in this pathway. Train electrical stimulation of the BLA excited 21% (7/33) and inhibited 27% (9/33) of the cells recorded in the PAG. Chemical(More)
The effect of epinephrine (EPI) on the activity of 150 periaqueductal gray (PAG) neurons was examined using extracellular recordings in an in vitro slice preparation. Drop application of EPI inhibited 45%, excited 35%, and had no effect on 20% of PAG neurons. Both the excitatory and inhibitory effects of EPI were of long duration; excitatory responses(More)
BACKGROUND Ukraine has experienced an increase in injection drug use since the 1990s. An increase in HIV and hepatitis C virus infections has followed, but not measures of prevalence and risk factors. The purposes of this study are to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HCV, and co-infection among injection drug users (IDUs) in central Ukraine and to describe(More)
Experimental evidence does not currently exist to support the claims of clinical effectiveness for myofascial release techniques. This presents an obvious need to document the effects of myofascial release. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two techniques, sagittal plane isometric contract-relax and myofascial release leg pull for(More)
Dysregulation of immune system functions has been implicated in schizophrenia, suggesting that immune cells may be involved in the development of the disorder. With the goal of a biomarker assay for psychosis risk, we performed small RNA sequencing on RNA isolated from circulating immune cells. We compared baseline microRNA (miRNA) expression for persons(More)
Transitioning from adolescence to full-fledged adulthood is often challenging, and young people who live in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods face additional obstacles and experience disproportionately higher negative outcomes, including substance abuse and related risk behaviors. This study investigated whether substance use among African Americans ages 15(More)
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