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A systematic review may encompass both odds ratios and mean differences in continuous outcomes. A separate meta-analysis of each type of outcome results in loss of information and may be misleading. It is shown that a ln(odds ratio) can be converted to effect size by dividing by 1.81. The validity of effect size, the estimate of interest divided by the(More)
The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) was planned to answer specific questions about the distribution of asthma and health care given for asthma in the European Community. Specifically, the survey is designed to estimate variations in the prevalence of asthma, asthma-like symptoms and airway responsiveness; to estimate variations in(More)
The current reference curves of stature and weight for the UK were first published in 1966 and have been used ever since despite increasing concern that they may not adequately describe the growth of present day British children. Using current data from seven sources new reference curves have been estimated from birth to 20 years for children in 1990. The(More)
Four European centres provided height and weight data on 202 males and 204 females undergoing red cell mass (RCM) and plasma volume (PV) measurements. For these populations, the RCM and PV predictions by the various published methods were compared. It was shown clearly that predictions based solely on body weight were inappropriate, particularly because(More)
OBJECTIVE To provide information concerning the magnitude of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for cluster-based studies set in primary care. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING Reanalysis of data from 31 cluster-based studies in primary care to estimate intraclass correlation coefficients from random effects models using maximum likelihood estimation. (More)
The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) was the first study to assess the geographical variation in asthma and allergy in adults using the same instruments and definitions. The database of the ECRHS includes information from approximately 140,000 individuals from 22 countries. The aim of this review is to summarize the results of the ECRHS(More)
The International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) Bronchial Symptoms Questionnaire (1984) was developed for use in studies of asthma and its reliability measured in an earlier survey in England. The association of the symptoms elicited by this questionnaire to bronchial response to histamine has also been described. This paper presents(More)
BACKGROUND Passive smoking is widespread, and environmental tobacco smoke contains many potent respiratory irritants. This analysis aimed to estimate the effect of passive smoking on respiratory symptoms, bronchial responsiveness, lung function, and total serum IgE in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. METHODS This analysis included data(More)