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The absence of dystrophin at the muscle membrane leads to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a severe muscle-wasting disease that is inevitably fatal in early adulthood. In contrast, dystrophin-deficient mdx mice appear physically normal despite their underlying muscle pathology. We describe mice deficient for both dystrophin and the dystrophin-related(More)
Regulators of skeletal muscle mass are of interest, given the morbidity and mortality of muscle atrophy and myopathy. Four-and-a-half LIM protein 1 (FHL1) is mutated in several human myopathies, including reducing-body myopathy (RBM). The normal function of FHL1 in muscle and how it causes myopathy remains unknown. We find that FHL1 transgenic expression in(More)
The dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC) is found at the muscle fiber sarcolemma and forms an essential structural link between the basal lamina and internal cytoskeleton. In a set of muscular dystrophies known as the dystroglycanopathies, hypoglycosylation of the DGC component α-dystroglycan results in reduced binding to basal lamina(More)
Muscular dystrophies with reduced glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG), commonly referred to as dystroglycanopathies, are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive conditions which include a wide spectrum of clinical severity. Reported phenotypes range from severe congenital onset Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) with severe structural brain and(More)
CONTEXT Over the past 15 years the causative genes of several inherited muscular dystrophies have been identified. These genes encode sarcolemmal, extracellular matrix, sarcomeric, and nuclear envelope proteins. Although the post-translational processing of muscle proteins has a significant role in their correct assembly and function, these processes have(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The recent identification of mutations in five genes coding for proteins with putative or demonstrated glycosyltransferase activity has shed light on a novel mechanism responsible for muscular dystrophy. Abnormal glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan appears to be a common finding in all these conditions. Surprisingly, the disease severity(More)
We describe 22 patients with mutations in the fukutin-related protein (FKPR) gene. Four patients had congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1C), with presentation at birth, severe weakness and inability to stand unsupported. The other 18 had limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2I). Eleven showed a Duchenne-like course with loss of ambulation in the early teens(More)
Dominant mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene are well-recognized causes of both malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) and central core disease (CCD). More recently, recessive RYR1 mutations have been described in few congenital myopathy patients with variable pathology, including multi-minicores. Although a clinical overlap(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Dystroglycanopathies are a common group of diseases characterized by a reduction in α-dystroglycan glycosylation. This review discusses the recent novel discovery of additional dystroglycanopathy variants and progress in dystroglycanopathy animal models. RECENT FINDINGS Several novel glycosyltransferase genes have been found to be(More)
Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the combined involvement of the central nervous and skeletal muscle systems. Although the molecular basis of WWS remains unknown, defects in the muscle fibre basal lamina are characteristic of other forms of congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD). In agreement with this, some(More)