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The absence of dystrophin at the muscle membrane leads to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a severe muscle-wasting disease that is inevitably fatal in early adulthood. In contrast, dystrophin-deficient mdx mice appear physically normal despite their underlying muscle pathology. We describe mice deficient for both dystrophin and the dystrophin-related(More)
Central core disease (CCD) is a congenital myopathy due to dominant mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1). The authors report three patients from two consanguineous families with symptoms of a congenital myopathy, cores on muscle biopsy, and confirmed linkage to the RYR1 locus. Molecular genetic studies in one family identified a(More)
We describe two Scottish siblings affected by a form of congenital muscular dystrophy characterised by a severe clinical phenotype, similar to that observed in the 6q-linked merosin-deficient CMD but in whom brain MRI and cognitive development were normal. The maximal function achieved in the 2 siblings was sitting independently. Serum CK were grossly(More)
Minicore myopathy is a congenital myopathy characterized by multifocal areas of degeneration in muscle fibres. Genetic heterogeneity expected on the basis of clinical variability awaits further resolution. We reviewed 19 cases in order to further delineate the phenotype. Marked hypotonia was the predominant presenting feature, with evidence of antenatal(More)
Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) is caused by recessive and dominant mutations in COL6A genes. We have analysed collagen VI expression in 14 UCMD patients. Sequencing of COL6A genes had identified homozygous and heterozygous mutations in 12 cases. Analysis of collagen VI in fibroblast cultures derived from eight of these patients showed reduced(More)
AIMS The quantification of protein levels in muscle biopsies is of particular relevance in the diagnostic process of neuromuscular diseases, but is difficult to assess in cases of partial protein deficiency, particularly when information on protein localization is required. The combination of immunohistochemistry and Western blotting is often used in these(More)
The dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC) is found at the muscle fiber sarcolemma and forms an essential structural link between the basal lamina and internal cytoskeleton. In a set of muscular dystrophies known as the dystroglycanopathies, hypoglycosylation of the DGC component α-dystroglycan results in reduced binding to basal lamina(More)
Muscular dystrophies with reduced glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG), commonly referred to as dystroglycanopathies, are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive conditions which include a wide spectrum of clinical severity. Reported phenotypes range from severe congenital onset Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) with severe structural brain and(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The recent identification of mutations in five genes coding for proteins with putative or demonstrated glycosyltransferase activity has shed light on a novel mechanism responsible for muscular dystrophy. Abnormal glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan appears to be a common finding in all these conditions. Surprisingly, the disease severity(More)
CONTEXT Over the past 15 years the causative genes of several inherited muscular dystrophies have been identified. These genes encode sarcolemmal, extracellular matrix, sarcomeric, and nuclear envelope proteins. Although the post-translational processing of muscle proteins has a significant role in their correct assembly and function, these processes have(More)