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An understanding of the relationship between altered sperm motion and sperm function (fertility) is important when interpreting the biological significance of toxicant-induced changes in sperm velocity in rodent test species. Previous studies showed that a brief (4-day) exposure of male hamsters to the model chemical alpha-chlorohydrin (ACH) results in(More)
Several decades ago it was reported that when adult male rats were exposed to a single injection of 50 mg/kg body weight ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS) and mated with untreated females, average litter size was significantly reduced as early as 2 weeks later. Recently, we demonstrated that EDS exerts multiple effects in the epididymis of adult rats. Some of(More)
Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) is a potent antibacterial and antifungal compound that is widely used in personal care products, plastics, and fabrics. Recently triclosan has been shown to alter endocrine function in a variety of species. The purpose of this study was to determine effects of triclosan on pubertal development and thyroid(More)
BACKGROUND Chlorination of drinking water generates disinfection by-products (DBPs), which have been shown to disrupt spermatogenesis in rodents at high doses, suggesting that DBPs could pose a reproductive risk to men. In this study we assessed DBP exposure and testicular toxicity, as evidenced by altered semen quality. METHODS We conducted a cohort(More)
We previously established that levels of the sperm membrane protein, SP22, are highly correlated with the fertility of sperm from the cauda epididymidis of rats exposed to both epididymal and testicular toxicants, and that a testis-specific SP22 transcript is expressed in postmeiotic germ cells. In this study, polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were(More)
There are thousands of environmental chemicals for which there is limited toxicological information, motivating the development and application of in vitro systems to profile the biological effects of xenobiotic exposure and predict their potential developmental hazard. An adherent cell differentiation and cytotoxicity (ACDC) assay was developed using(More)
Glutathione (GSH) is thought to play critical roles in oocyte function including spindle maintenance and provision of reducing power needed to initiate sperm chromatin decondensation. Previous observations that GSH concentrations are higher in mature than immature oocytes and decline after fertilization, suggest that GSH synthesis may be associated with(More)
BACKGROUND Research has suggested an association with ambient air pollution and sperm quality. OBJECTIVES We investigated the effect of exposure to ozone (O3) and particulate matter < 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) on sperm quality. METHODS We reexamined a previous cohort study of water disinfection by-products to evaluate sperm quality in(More)
To investigate the relationship between sperm motion parameters and fertilizing ability, a model was developed to assess both of these endpoints synchronously using a toxicant that inhibits sperm motion. alpha-Chlorohydrin (ACH) was administered daily for 4 days to male hamsters at 0, 33, 49, 66, and 83 mg/kg body weight. These males were then allowed a(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe study design, conduct and response, and participant characteristics. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING Participants were male partners of women who were enrolled in a community-based prospective cohort study of drinking water disinfection by-products and pregnancy health. PATIENT(S) Two hundred thirty presumed fertile men(More)