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In line with global targets agreed under the Convention on Biological Diversity, the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) is increasing rapidly, yet socio-economic benefits generated by MPAs remain difficult to predict and under debate. MPAs often fail to reach their full potential as a consequence of factors such as illegal harvesting, regulations that(More)
Coronaviruses encode multifunctional proteins that are critical for viral replication and for blocking the innate immune response to viral infection. One such multifunctional domain is the coronavirus papain-like protease (PLP), which processes the viral replicase polyprotein, has deubiquitinating (DUB) activity, and antagonizes the induction of type I(More)
Replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) requires proteolytic processing of the replicase polyprotein by two viral cysteine proteases, a chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) and a papain-like protease (PLpro). These proteases are important targets for development of antiviral drugs that would inhibit viral replication(More)
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), a common human respiratory pathogen, is associated with both upper and lower respiratory tract disease in children and adults. Currently, no antiviral drugs are available to treat CoV infections; thus, potential drug targets need to be identified and characterized. Here, we identify HCoV-NL63 replicase gene products and(More)
UNLABELLED The papain-like protease (PLpro) domain from the deadly Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was overexpressed and purified. MERS-CoV PLpro constructs with and without the putative ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain at the N terminus were found to possess protease, deubiquitinating, deISGylating, and interferon antagonism activities(More)
The developing field of community genetics has the potential to broaden the contribution of genetics to conservation biology by demonstrating that genetic variation within foundation plant species can act to structure associated communities of microorganisms, invertebrates, and vertebrates. We assessed the biodiversity consequences of natural patterns of(More)
The replication complexes (RCs) of positive-stranded RNA viruses are intimately associated with cellular membranes. To investigate membrane alterations and to characterize the RC of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), we performed biochemical and ultrastructural studies using MHV-infected cells. Biochemical fractionation showed that all 10 of the MHV gene 1(More)
Replication of the genomic RNA of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is mediated by replicase polyproteins that are processed by two viral proteases, papain-like protease (PLpro) and 3C-like protease (3CLpro). Previously, we showed that SARS-CoV PLpro processes the replicase polyprotein at three conserved cleavage sites. Here, we(More)
The 5' cap structures of higher eukaryote mRNAs have ribose 2'-O-methylation. Likewise, many viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of eukaryotes have evolved 2'-O-methyltransferases to autonomously modify their mRNAs. However, a defined biological role for 2'-O-methylation of mRNA remains elusive. Here we show that 2'-O-methylation of viral mRNA was(More)