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3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are the only known enzymes to compartmentalize cAMP and cGMP, yet little is known about how PDEs are dynamically regulated across the lifespan. We mapped mRNA expression of all 21 PDE isoforms in the adult rat and mouse central nervous system (CNS) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and in(More)
Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) promotes cyclic nucleotide signaling, increases striatal activation, and decreases behavioral activity. Enhanced cyclic nucleotide signaling is a well established route to producing changes in gene expression. We hypothesized that chronic suppression of PDE10A activity would have significant effects on gene(More)
OBJECTIVE In the present study, we sought to develop/characterize the pain profile of a rat model of surgically induced osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS OA was surgically induced in male Lewis rats (200-225 g) by transection of the medial collateral ligament and medial meniscus of the femoro-tibial joint. In order to characterize the pain profile, animals(More)
Adult rats were treated acutely with peripheral kainic acid (KA), and changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein were tracked over time across multiple brain regions. Despite robust elevation in both mRNA and protein in multiple brain regions, plasma BDNF was unchanged and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) BDNF levels remained(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling is integral to a range of neural functions, including synaptic plasticity and exhibits activity-dependent regulation of expression. As altered BDNF signaling has been implicated in multiple psychiatric diseases, here we report a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis(More)
We present a new approach for quantifying the degradation of knee cartilage in the medial meniscal tear (MMT) model of osteoarthritis in the rat. A statistical strategy was used to guide the selection of a region of interest (ROI) from the images obtained from a pilot study. We hypothesize that this strategy can be used to localize a region of cartilage(More)
Non-malignant musculoskeletal pain is the most common clinical symptom that causes patients to seek medical attention and is a major cause of disability in the world. Musculoskeletal pain can arise from a variety of common conditions including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, surgery, low back pain and bone fracture. A major problem in(More)
It has been hypothesized that peripherally restricted NMDA receptor antagonists may be effective analgesics for osteoarthritis pain. A class of novel quinoxalinedione atropisomers, first discovered for an NMDA receptor antagonist program for the treatment of stroke, was evaluated and further optimized with the goal of finding peripherally restricted NMDA(More)
PURPOSE Transgenic manipulation of mouse physiology facilitates the preclinical study of genetic risk factors, neural plasticity, and reactive processes accompanying Alzheimer's disease. Alternatively, entorhinal cortex lesions (ECLs) model pathophysiological denervation and axonal sprouting in rat. Given reports of anatomical differences between the mouse(More)
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