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3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are the only known enzymes to compartmentalize cAMP and cGMP, yet little is known about how PDEs are dynamically regulated across the lifespan. We mapped mRNA expression of all 21 PDE isoforms in the adult rat and mouse central nervous system (CNS) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and in(More)
We present a new approach for quantifying the degradation of knee cartilage in the medial meniscal tear (MMT) model of osteoarthritis in the rat. A statistical strategy was used to guide the selection of a region of interest (ROI) from the images obtained from a pilot study. We hypothesize that this strategy can be used to localize a region of cartilage(More)
PURPOSE Transgenic manipulation of mouse physiology facilitates the preclinical study of genetic risk factors, neural plasticity, and reactive processes accompanying Alzheimer's disease. Alternatively, entorhinal cortex lesions (ECLs) model pathophysiological denervation and axonal sprouting in rat. Given reports of anatomical differences between the mouse(More)
It has been hypothesized that peripherally restricted NMDA receptor antagonists may be effective analgesics for osteoarthritis pain. A class of novel quinoxalinedione atropisomers, first discovered for an NMDA receptor antagonist program for the treatment of stroke, was evaluated and further optimized with the goal of finding peripherally restricted NMDA(More)
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