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BACKGROUND Erythema migrans is the most common manifestation of Lyme disease. Recurrences are not uncommon, and although they are usually attributed to reinfection rather than relapse of the original infection, this remains somewhat controversial. We used molecular typing of Borrelia burgdorferi isolates obtained from patients with culture-confirmed(More)
BACKGROUND The diagnosis of erythema migrans (EM), the characteristic rash of early Lyme borreliosis, is based primarily on its clinical appearance since it often occurs prior to the development of a specific antibody response. Other skin disorders, however, may be confused with EM. METHODS Between June 1991 and September 1993, a prospective study was(More)
CONTEXT Lyme disease typically presents with a skin lesion called erythema migrans (EM), which though often distinctive in appearance may be confused with cellulitis. The first-generation cephalosporin, cephalexin monohydrate, is effective for treating bacterial cellulitis but has not been recommended or studied for treating Lyme disease because of poor in(More)
Lyme disease is transmitted by the bite of certain Ixodes ticks, which can also transmit Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the cause of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA). Although culture can be used to identify patients infected with A. phagocytophilum and is the microbiologic gold standard, few studies have evaluated culture-confirmed patients with HGA. We(More)
BACKGROUND Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. The characteristic rash, erythema migrans, is an early sign of the disease. Clinical criteria remain the "gold standard" for diagnosis at this stage of illness. OBSERVATIONS Five (8%) of 65 patients with erythema migrans seen in a Lyme disease diagnostic center in(More)
We investigated the appearance and evolution of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in 46 patients with culture-proven erythema migrans (EM). All patients received antimicrobial treatment and were prospectively evaluated for up to 1 year. A total of 257 serially collected serum samples were tested by commercial IgG-IgM(More)
Current laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease relies on tests for the detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of the disease. These tests are often unreliable because of a lack of sensitivity and specificity and test-to-test variability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of polymerase chain(More)
Two hundred seventeen isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi originally cultured from skin biopsy samples or blood of early Lyme disease patients were genetically characterized by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer. Three major RFLP types were observed. Of the cultured isolates, 63 of 217(More)
To improve yield, 6 3-mL plasma cultures (18 mL total) were established for adult patients with early Lyme disease associated with erythema migrans. Borrelia burgdorferi was recovered from the blood of 22 (44.0%) of 50 evaluable patients. The recovery rate per plasma culture and the frequency of positive results for plasma cultures for individual patients(More)
Polymerase chain reaction is often used for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in biological specimens. It has been suggested that polymerase chain reaction may be used as a surrogate marker of cell viability. To test this premise, B. burgdorferi cultures were treated with the antibiotic, ceftriaxone, and aliquots were cultured for cell viability and tested(More)